时间:2017年12月14日 06:23:21

Katie Holmes (Square)For someone with an angular jaw like Katie Holmes, Softness is key. A rounder brow arch is needed to soften the corners of the face and create less sharp angles. The end of the brow shouldn’t be too pointed, either, which would add another sharp line to this face shape。凯蒂·霍尔姆斯( 方形脸)像凯蒂·霍尔姆斯一样下颌有棱角的人,眉型柔和是关键。眉毛弧度较圆能柔和面部轮廓,使面部棱角不那么锋利。眉尾也不能画得太尖,如果画得太尖,会让这种脸型看上去轮廓更明显。 /201507/384738

Over the last 30 years, Domenico Dolce and Stefano Gabbana have dressed Madonna, designed costumes for Baz Luhrmann movies and fended off one of the most convoluted tax evasion cases in recent business history.过去30多年里,杜梅尼克·多尔奇(Domenico Dolce)和斯蒂芬诺·加班纳(Stefano Gabbana)为麦当娜(Madonna)提供装,为巴兹·鲁赫曼(Baz Luhrmann)的电影设计戏,并且从近年来商业史上最复杂的逃税案件诉讼中逃脱。Well before same-sex marriage became widely recognized around the world (though not in Italy), the two were openly living together as lovers, unapologetic as they showed up in their tight white T-shirts at gay clubs like the Sound Factory. A recent ad campaign for their fashion line, Dolce amp; Gabbana, seemed to extol group sex.早在同性婚姻在全世界广泛受到认可之前(尽管在意大利尚未得到承认),两人便公然以恋人身份同居,身穿紧身白T恤衫,毫无愧色地在“声音工厂”之类男同性恋俱乐部出双入对。他们的时装品牌杜嘉班纳(Dolce amp; Gabbana)最近的广告宣传似乎又在赞美群交。So it was something of a surprise this week when word broke that the two men, who are no longer romantically involved but still run their business together, had given an interview in the Italian magazine Panorama in which they said they opposed gay people having families of their own.这个星期传来惊人的消息:恋爱关系已经走到尽头,但仍然在一起经营生意的这两位,在接受意大利杂志《帕诺拉玛》(Panorama)采访时称,他们不赞成男同性恋者组成自己的家庭。“You are born to a mother and a father, or at least that’s how it should be,” Mr. Dolce said. “I call children of chemistry, synthetic children. Rented uterus, semen chosen from a catalog.”“人们天生注定是爸爸和妈妈,至少应当如此,”多尔奇说,“我把那种化学手段生出来的孩子称为‘人工合成的孩子’,他们是用租来的子宫,从目录里选出来的精子生出来的。”Outrage was swift.此言引发的愤怒之情迅速蔓延开来。Elton John, who has two children via in-vitro fertilization with his husband, David Furnish, called for a boycott of Dolce amp; Gabbana, a brand he has long worn. Courtney Love declared her intention to burn all the Damp;G clothing she owned. The director Ryan Murphy tweeted that Dolce amp; Gabbana’s clothes are “as ugly as their hate.”埃尔顿·约翰和丈夫大卫·弗内什(David Furnish)拥有两个通过试管婴儿方式生下的孩子,他呼吁抵制杜嘉班纳,这个品牌他已经穿了很久。柯妮·拉芙(Courtney Lve)宣布,她打算烧掉自己所有的杜嘉班纳装。导演瑞安·墨菲(Ryan Murphy)发推特说,杜嘉班纳的装“和他们的憎恨一样丑陋”。Andy Cohen, the host of “Watch What Happens: Live,” said earlier this week that he was auctioning his black Dolce suit on eBay and would donate the money to the Family Equality Council, a gay rights organization. “Even though I loved this suit,” he said in the listing, “it wouldn’t be any fun for me to wear it again.” (By Wednesday afternoon, bidding had reached ,850.)“观察:现场”(Watch What Happens: Live)的主持人安迪·科恩(Andy Cohen)本周早些时候说,他正在eBay上拍卖自己的黑色杜嘉班纳西装,并打算把拍得的款项捐赠给男同性恋权利组织“家庭平等委员会”。“尽管我喜欢那件衣,”他在物品描述中说,“我也不会再乐意穿它了。”(截止周三下午,拍卖额已经达到1850美元)。It was the second time in the last year that members of the fashion and entertainment communities have called for the boycott of a global brand over gay rights issues, the other involving the Dorchester hotels owned by the sultan of Brunei, among them the Beverly Hills Hotel, Le Meurice in Paris and the Principe di Savoia in Milan. Brunei is implementing laws allowing harsh punishment for gay sex and adultery.一年来,这已是时尚与界第二次因为同性恋权利问题而呼吁抵制某个国际品牌了。上一次遭抵制的是文莱苏丹拥有的多切斯特酒店集团(Dorchester),其中包括了贝弗利山庄酒店(Beverly Hills Hotel)、巴黎的默里斯酒店(Le Meurice)和米兰的萨维亚普瑞斯普(Principe di Savoia)酒店。起因是文莱法律严惩同性性行为及通奸。The difference this time, in what seems like a tacit acknowledgment of the power a major advertiser wields in the publishing world: no editor of a fashion magazine contacted for this article would agree to comment or even be interviewed about the proposed boycott, not even Anna Wintour of Vogue, who took a very public stance over the Brunei issue, banning Vogue staff members from staying at those hotels and actively encouraging other Condé Nast executives to do the same.这一次不同的是,大广告商的势力似乎对出版行业产生了心照不宣的影响:本文所联系的时尚杂志主编都不愿意就此发表意见,也不愿就提议中的抵制问题接受采访。《Vogue》杂志的主编安娜·温图尔(Anna Wintour)曾在文莱事件中采取非常鲜明的立场,禁止《Vogue》的员工到多切斯特连锁酒店下榻,还强烈建议康泰纳仕集团(Condé Nast)旗下的其他管理层也这样做,但这一次,就连她也没有开腔。This time, along with Ms. Wintour, Cindi Leive, the editor of Glamour, and Roberta Myers, the editor of Elle, declined to comment, as did the openly gay (and recently married) Ariel Foxman, InStyle’s editor.除了温图尔,《Glamour》的主编辛迪·里弗(Cindi Leive)和《Elle》的主编罗伯塔·米尔斯(Roberta Myers)都拒绝,还有《InStyle》的主编,已公开同性恋身份并且新近结了婚的艾利尔·福克斯曼(Ariel Foxman)。Even Joanna Coles, the normally loquacious editor in chief of Cosmopolitan, was silent Wednesday. (Testy relations with the news media are nothing new for Dolce amp; Gabbana. The designers have banned the fashion critics for The New York Times from their Milan runway shows since 2007, when they were angered by a review of their collections that year.)就连《Cosmopolitan》的主编、一贯多话的乔安娜·科尔斯(Joanna Coles)在星期三也缄口不语(杜嘉班纳与新闻媒体关系向来不佳。2007年该品牌的米兰时装秀后,两位设计师看到《纽约时报》关于杜嘉班纳的一则后大为光火,从此便禁止《纽约时报》的时尚家出席他们在米兰的秀)。And while Madonna declined to comment, associates of the singer seemed to be making subtle attempts this week to distance her from the designers, noting that her relationship with Mr. Dolce and Mr. Gabbana has been contentious over the years. The message: Lots of people have issues with them.麦当娜也拒绝,这个星期,她的助手们似乎在小心翼翼地做出努力,强调她与多尔奇和加班纳的关系多年来争吵不断,把她与这两位设计师的距离拉开。说起来,倒是很多人都看他们不顺眼。For their part, Mr. Dolce and Mr. Gabbana issued an apology, of sorts, that did little to mollify their critics.在多尔奇和加班纳方面,他们发表了某种程度上的道歉,但并没有缓解对他们的批评。“We firmly believe in democracy and the fundamental principle of freedom of expression that upholds it,” Mr. Dolce said in a statement delivered by his spokesman, Paolo Cigognini, who declined further comment. “We talked about our way of seeing reality, but it was never our intention to judge other people’s choices.”“我们坚决相信民主,以及自由表达这一民主的基本原则,”多尔奇通过发言人保罗·西格格尼尼(Paolo Cigognini)说,“我们说出了我们对真相的看法,但我们无意评判他人的选择。”西格格尼尼拒绝发表进一步。(On his Instagram page, Mr. Gabbana called Elton John a “fascist” and posted images of a Je Suis Charlie-style campaign, titled appropriately “Je Suis Damp;G.”)(加班纳在自己的Instagram页面上说埃尔顿·约翰是“法西斯”,还贴了“我是查理”式的宣传画,标题是“我是杜嘉班纳”。)Italian fashion is largely a dynastic industry, but unlike Miuccia Prada, Donatella Versace or Angela Missoni, Mr. Dolce and Mr. Gabbana, who met in the early 1980s, do not come from money.意大利时尚界以家族传承居多,但与缪西娅·普拉达(Miuccia Prada)、多娜泰拉·范思哲(Donatella Versace)和安吉拉·米索尼(Angela Missoni)不同,相遇于80年代初的多尔奇和加班纳并非出身富庶的家庭。Mr. Dolce grew up in Sicily. His father, according to a 2005 New Yorker profile, was a tailor and his mother sold fabric and clothing at a local emporium.多尔奇在西西里长大,根据2005年《纽约客》上的一则人物特写,他的父亲是个裁缝,母亲在当地百货商场里卖布匹和衣。Mr. Gabbana is taller, flashier, perennially tan and rides around Milan, his hometown, on a leopard-print motorino. His father worked in a printing factory and his mother worked for a laundry service.加班纳身材更高、穿着更花哨,皮肤常年晒成古铜色,经常骑着带豹纹的托车在家乡米兰一带飙车。他的父亲在印刷厂工作,母亲在一个洗衣房里工作。The two began their business in 1985 and by the early 1990s, Madonna was wearing their clothes everywhere. She was the ideal spokeswoman for the two designers, who both rebelled against Roman Catholicism and yet revered its iconography.1985年,两人成立了自己的公司,90年代初,麦当娜开始穿他们设计的装到处亮相。她反抗罗马天主教,但仍尊敬它的图像,可以说是两位设计师的理想代言人。And like her, Dolce amp; Gabbana promulgated an image of excess but in real life were workhorses.和她一样,杜嘉班纳也宣扬一种表面有些放肆,但在现实生活中,却非常耐用的形象。“You’d go into the stores and see all the studs and the bells and whistles in the front, but in the back there were surprisingly wearable clothes,” said the writer William Norwich, who worked for Vogue in the early 1990s.“你到店里去,表面上看到那些铆钉和各种花哨的装饰,但令人惊讶的是,它们其实是非常具有穿戴性的衣,”90年代初,为《Vogue》撰稿的威廉·诺威克(William Norwich)写道。The clothing business in the ed States never became enormous, but by 2005, their company employed about 2,000 people.美国的装业从来就没有大过,但早在2005年,他们的公司就雇佣了约2000人。They started a fragrance business, Mr. Gabbana appeared on reality shows and the two men even recorded a cover version of the Andrea True Connection’s 1976 disco classic, “More, More, More.” Which is just what they did. In 2003, according to The New Yorker, they sold more products in Italy than Gucci, Prada, Armani and Versace.他们开始进军香水产业,加班纳开始在真人秀上亮相,两人甚至翻唱了Andrea True Connection在1976年推出的迪斯科经典名曲《更多,更多,更多》(More, More, More)。他们就是这样我行我素。根据《纽约客》报道,2003年,他们的产品在意大利的销量超过了古驰、普拉达、阿玛尼和范思哲。Around this time, Dolce amp; Gabbana stopped being a pair — at least a romantic one. But in interviews, Mr. Gabbana talked openly about wanting children and made it clear he wasn’t referring to adoption.就在这前后,多尔奇和加班纳分手了,但依旧是事业搭档。在许多访谈中,加班纳都公开谈起要孩子的事,还强调说自己不想收养孩子。Instead, the two spent the next several years fighting charges of tax evasion. They were convicted in 2013 and given a 20-month suspended sentence, only to have that reversed and the conviction vacated by Italy’s highest court in October 2014.两人接下来的几年时间里,都在与逃税指控做斗争。2013年,他们被判有罪,获得20个月的缓刑期,2014年10月,意大利最高法院改判两人无罪。This February, they showed their latest collection in Milan. It drew heavily on that iconography and paid homage to mothers. Some of the models came down the runway holding babies. Others wore sweaters that said “I love you, Mama.”今年2月,他们在米兰展示了最新系列。它大量使用肖像,表现出对母亲的敬意。有些模特抱着婴儿走上秀台,还有些人穿的套头衫上写有“我爱你,妈妈”字样。Shortly thereafter came the Panorama interview, where the designers expressed apparent opposition to gay families.不久后就有了《帕诺拉玛》的访谈,两位设计师表达了对男同性恋家庭的鲜明反对。“They’re alienating a large portion of the customer base,” said Ed Filipowski, the president of KCD, one of the fashion industry’s largest public relations firms. “They’re alienating women or anyone trying to have a child in vitro and they’re alienating their L.G.B.T. constituency. It’s a serious issue.” (He added that he found Elton John’s comments on the matter commendable.)“他们这样做等于是放弃了很大一部分客户,”KCD公司总裁艾德·菲利波夫斯基(Ed Filipowski)说,KCD是时尚界最大的公关公司之一。“他们这样等于放弃了希望通过试管婴儿方式要孩子的女人以及所有人,放弃了自身的LGBT人群基础。这是个很严重的问题。”(他还补充说,埃尔顿·约翰对这件事的回应是值得称颂的)。In what may turn out to be a P.R. problem in Hollywood, Dolce has long been a favorite on the red carpet. In 2011, Scarlett Johansson was decked out in a fitted lavender dress with a floral pattern. A year later, Selena Gomez showed up to the Vanity Fair in a gray sleeveless dress.在引发好莱坞公关问题之前,多尔奇一直都是红毯宠儿。2011年,斯嘉丽·约翰松(Scarlett Johansson)穿了杜嘉班纳一件合身的淡紫色带花朵图案长裙。一年后,赛琳娜·戈麦斯(Selena Gomez)身穿一件灰色无袖长裙在《名利场》(Vanity Fair)上亮相。Terrence Howard wore a Dolce tuxedo to the Kodak Theater this year. In the auditorium, he sat near Ms. Wintour, whose daughter, Bee Shaffer, arrived wearing a Dolce gown. (Also wearing Dolce at the Oscars: David Oyelowo and Channing Tatum.)今年,特伦斯·霍华德(Terrence Howard)穿了一件多尔奇的晚礼,在柯达剧场亮相。入场后,他坐在温图尔身边,温图尔的女儿碧夏弗(Bee Shaffer)也穿了多尔奇的长袍。在奥斯卡颁奖礼上,大卫·奥伊罗(David Oyelowo)和查宁·塔图姆(Channing Tatum)都穿了多尔奇的装。Now, all these people risk getting an earful from gay rights organizations and their publicists.现在,这些人都面临遭到同性恋权力组织和他们的宣传人员斥责的可能性。“We have our annual Media Awards Saturday night,” said Sarah Kate Ellis, the president of Glaad, the gay rights organization. “We have a lot of people coming and we’re telling all of them that we would appreciate it if they not wear Dolce amp; Gabbana.”“我们有年度媒体奖周六夜颁奖仪式,”同性恋权利组织Glaad协会主席莎拉·凯特·埃里斯(Sarah Kate Ellis)说。“会有很多人出席,我们会告诉所有人,如果他们不穿杜嘉班纳,我们将表示感谢。”Simon Halls, a founding partner of the entertainment public relations firm Slate PR, said: “I don’t think this is going to go away. I think people are really going to take them to task for this.”西蒙·霍尔斯(Simon Halls)是公关公司Slate PR的创始人之一,他说:“我不觉得这事会马上过去。我觉得人们会谴责他们。”“These are families they’re talking about,” said Mr. Halls, who himself is an in-vitro fertilization parent along with his husband, the actor Matt Bomer. “These are children. Everybody’s got their own personal issues. Those guys are allowed as people to have their own opinions. But they also are public figures and when they communicate that kind of hate filled speech, they are firing up other like minded people in the most irresponsible way possible. It’s dangerous and despicable.”“他们的话涉及家庭,”霍尔说,他自己也和丈夫、演员马特·波莫(Matt Bomer)采取试管婴儿方式剩下孩子。“还涉及孩子。所有人都面临着个人的问题。他们当然可以像普通人一样有自己的看法。但他们也是公众人物,当他们说出那种充满仇恨的话语时,就等于在以最不负责任的方式煽动那些和他们有类似看法的人。这是很危险,也很卑鄙。”Some of the anger appeared to go beyond gay rights.针对他们的愤怒超出了维护男同性恋权利的范畴。Lynn Hirschberg, the editor at large at W Magazine, suggested that the designers’ heavy-handed behavior in the past was part of the reason the reaction has been so harsh.《W杂志》(W Magazine)的特约编辑琳恩·赫舍伯格(Lynn Hirschberg)认为,两位设计师过去那些拙劣的行为也令这次人们对他们的反应格外严厉。“They’ve been unkind and difficult for many, many years, and people have been waiting to respond,” she said. “This is an all debts must be paid kind of thing.”“很多年来,他们一直为人冷酷,不好相处,人们一直都在等机会反击,”她说,“就像是恶有恶报。” /201503/366169

Wherever Chinese go,the custom of drinking tea follows. Tea was first discovered by the Chinese. Tea is an indispensable part of the life of a Chinese. A Chinese saying identifies the seven basic daily necessities oil,salt, soy sauce,vinegar, and tea. The custom of drinking tea as fuelrice has been ingrained in the Chinese for over a thousand years. In Tang Dynasty,a man named Lu Yu created the first compendium in the world on tea,Book of Tea .This work helped to popularize the art of tea drinking all across China.无论中国人走到哪里,都不会改掉喝茶的习惯。茶最先由中国人发现,它是中国人生活中不可或缺的组成部分。有一句中国谚语将基本的日常必需品称为柴、米、油、盐、酱、醋、茶。一千多年以来,饮茶的习俗已经在中国人心中根深蒂固。唐朝时,一个名叫陆羽的人写了世界上第一部关于茶的著作—《茶经》,这部书有助于在中国推广饮茶艺术。Tea is made from the young,tender leaves of the tea tree. The differences among the many kinds of tea available are based mainly on the roasting and fermentation of the tea leaves. Through fermentation,the originally deep green leaves become reddish-brown in color. The longer the fermentation,the darker the color. Depending on the length of the roasting and degree of fermentation,the fragrance can range from floral to fruity to many.茶是用茶树的幼嫩叶子做成的。现有的许多茶叶种类之间的区别主要在于对茶叶的烘烤和发酵的方法。通过发酵,原先深绿色的叶子颜色就变成红褐色。发酵的时间越长,颜色就越暗。根据烘烤时向和发酵的程度,香味也会有花香、果香以及麦香之分。Tea is China#39;s national drink. It contains vitamins,chlorophyll,essential oils, and fluoride. It is a diuretic capable of improving the eyesight and increasing alertness,so Chinese believe that frequent tea drinkers enjoy a longer life span. Its medical properties and benefits to the human body have actually been scientiflcal1y proven,and tea has come to be generally recognized as a natural health food.茶是中国的民族饮品。茶叶中含有维生素、叶绿素、精油以及氟化物。它具有利尿、明目、提神的功用,因此中国人认为经常喝茶的人能够长寿。茶叶的药用功能及其对人体的好处实际上已经得到了科学的明,同时茶叶已经被公认为天然的健康食品。Tea drinking customs饮茶的习俗There are several special circumstances in which tea is prepared and consumed.To show respect; In Chinese society,the younger generation always shows its respect to the older generation by offering a cup of tea. Inviting and paying for their elders to go to restaurants for tea is a traditional activity on holidays. In the past,people of lower rank served tea to higher ranking people. Today, as Chinese society becomes more liberal,sometimes at home parents may pour a cup of tea for their children,or a boss may even pour tea for subordinates at restaurants. The lower ranking person should not expect the higher rank person to serve him or her tea on formal occasions,however.在许多特殊场合上要进行泡茶和饮茶,作为一种礼貌的表示,在中国社会中,晚辈经常通过敬茶来表示对长辈的尊敬。在节假日里,邀请长辈到餐馆喝茶并为其埋单则是传统的活动。过去,级别较低的人要向级别较高的人上茶。如今由于中国社会变得更加自由,因此有时父母在家中可能会为子女倒茶,甚至老板在饭店里也可能为下属倒茶。但是在正式的场合中,级别较低的人不应指望级别较高的人为自己倒茶。For a family gathering:When sons and daughters leave home to work and get married,they may seldom visit their parents. As a result, parents may seldom meet their grandchildren. Going to restaurants and drinking tea,therefore, becomes an important activity for fami份gatherings. Every Sunday, Chinese restaurants are crowded,especially when people celebrate festivals. This phenomenon reflects Chinese family values.用于家庭团聚:当子女离家工作或结婚之后,他们可能很少见到自己的父母,父母也可能很少见到自己的孙子孙女。因此,去餐馆喝茶便成为家庭团聚的一种重要活动。中国的餐馆在每个周日都十分拥挤,尤其是当人们庆祝节日的时候。这种现象反映出中国人重视家庭的价值观。To apologize:In Chinese culture,people make serious apologies to others by pouring tea on them. That is a sign of regret and submission.表示歉意:在中国文化中,人们常通过为别人倒茶来表示郑重的歉意。这是道歉和顺从的一种表示。To express thanks to your elders on one#39;s wedding day:At the traditional Chinese marriage ceremony,both the bride and groom kneel in front of their parents and serve them tea. That is a way to express their gratitude. In front of their parents,it is a practice for the married couple to say,“Thanks for bringing us up.Now we are getting married. We owe it all to you”The parents will usually drink a small portion of the tea and then give them a red envelope, which symbolizes good luck.在成亲之日表示对长辈的谢意:在传统的中国婚礼仪式中,新娘和新郎都要跪在自己的父母面前为他们敬茶。在自己的父母面前,一对新人通常说:“感谢你们的养育之恩。现在我们已经成亲了,这全都要感谢你们啊。”父母则通常要饮一小口茶,然后再给这对新人红包,这象征着好运。Expressing gratitude for tea对上茶表示感谢After a person#39;s cup is filled,that person may knock their bent index and middle fingers (or some similar variety of finger tapping) on the table to express gratitude to the person who served the tea. Although this custom is common in southern Chinese culture such as the Cantonese, it is generally not recognised nor praciced in other parfis of China.当别人给你的杯子倒了茶之后,你可以将食指和中指弯曲敲一敲桌子,以表示对七茶人的谢意。虽然这个习俗在诸如中国南方的广东等地区十分普遍,但是中国的其他地区通常并不承认或流传这种习俗。This custom is said to have originated in the Qing Dynasty when Emperor Qianlong would travel in disguise through the empire. Servants were told not to reveal their master#39;s identity. One day in a restaurant, the emperor, after pouring himself a cup of tea,filled a servant#39;s cup as well. To that servant it was a huge honour to have the emperor pour him a cup of tea. Out of reflex he wanted to kneel and express his thanks. He could not kneel and kowtow to the emperor since that would reveal the emperor#39;s identity so he bent his fingers to knock on the table to express his gratitude and respect to the emperor.这个习俗据说起源于清朝。当时乾隆皇帝要在全国微出访,他告诉自己的仆人不得透露自己的身份。乾隆皇帝有一天在餐馆里给自己倒了一杯茶之后,又给仆人倒了一杯茶。对于这位仆人来说,皇帝为他倒茶是极大的荣幸。他条件反射地要跪下来表示感谢。由于这会暴露皇帝的身份,因此他不能跪下来向皇帝叩头,于是他弯起手指在桌上敲了几个,以表示自己对皇帝的谢意和敬意。Tea Wares茶具Though not as strict as the tea ceremony in Japan,certain rules govern the Chinese understanding of tea. Take tea wares as an example.Green tea goes with white porcelain or celadon without a cover; scented tea with celadon or blue and white porcelain with a cover; black tea goes well with purple clay ware with white inside glaze,or with white porcelain or warm colored wares or coffee wares; and Oolong tea is also excellent in purple clay ware. In a word,the harmonious combination of function,material,and color of tea ware is essential to brewing excellent tea.虽然不像日本的茶道仪式那么严格,但还是有些规定主宰着中国人对茶的理解。以茶具为例,绿茶要放在没有盖子的白瓷或青瓷中泡;花茶则要用带盖子的青瓷或蓝白色瓷器中泡;红茶则以里面为白釉的紫砂茶具泡制为宜,或是采用白瓷、暖色调的茶具,或是泡咖啡的器皿;乌龙茶也适合用紫砂茶具泡制。简而言之,茶具的功能、材料以及颜色的和谐统一对于泡出好茶来至关重要。Tea wares consist of ovens,teapots,cups,tea bowls, and trays and so on.Nowadays with the development of tea procedure,we can make。cup of tea wit with a single porcelain cup. In the following paragraphs,we will focus on the most essential tea ware-tea cups and teapots.茶具分为茶炉、茶壶、茶杯、茶碗以及茶盘。如今随着泡茶过程的发展,我们可以只用一个瓷碗来泡茶。在下面的章节中,我们将关注最重要的茶具—茶碗和壶。The custom of drinking tea propelled the development of the porcelain industry. Tang scholars preferred green porcelain from Shaoxing,Zhejiang Province.This kind of green porcelain was like crystal or jade with elegant design and exquisite decoration. Since the true color of tea was set off beautifully in this dainty cup(ou in Chinese ),it was number one in Lu Yu#39;s Book of Tea .As to function,the size and design of the cup best suited to the tea drinking habit of that time allowed for cooking tea powder with green onion,ginger, dates,tangerine peels and mint, Then drinking the whole soup.饮茶的习俗推动了瓷器业发展。唐朝的士大夫喜欢浙江省绍兴的青瓷。这种青瓷宛如带有精致图案和精美装饰的水晶或一般。由于茶的本色在这种玲珑的杯子(贩)中得到映衬,因此它在陆羽《茶经》中排名第一。杯子的功能、大小以及设计都适合当时饮茶的习惯,并且能够将茶叶粉末与绿色的洋葱、姜、枣、陈皮以及薄荷一起熬制,然后饮用所有的汤汁。The preference for green porcelain or white porcelain was suddenly changed to black glazed teacups in the Song Dynasty. Scholars emphasized the white foam that formed when boiled water was added to the teacup. The most desirable foam was white,best presented in black tea ware. Black glazed tea ware from Fujian was dominant, while purple clay tea wares emerged in Yixing,Jiangsu.到了宋代,人们对青瓷或白瓷的偏爱突然转到了黑釉茶杯上。士大夫们注重把开水加入茶杯中要形成白色的泡沫。最理想的泡沫颜色是白色,而且最好用黑色的茶具来盛放。产自福建的黑釉茶具则成了主流,而紫砂茶具在江苏宜兴出现了。In the beginning of the Ming Dynasty,tea was made by pouring boiled water onto loose tea leaves. The tea liquor turned yellowish white,so snow-white teacups replaced the black-glazed tea ware of the Song Dynasty. In the middle of the Ming,with the advent of purple clay tea ware,focus was not limited to the color contrast of tea liquor and tea ware,but switched to the fragrance and taste of tea. The production of various teapots came to its pinnacle at the time.到了明朝初年,茶是用沸水倒进散茶叶中泡成的。茶的汁水变成黄白色,因此雪白的茶杯便取代了宋代的黑釉茶具。在明朝中期,随着紫砂茶具的出现,人们的注意力就不局限于茶水和茶具之间的颜色对比了,而是转移到茶的芬芳与口感了。各种茶壶的生产在当时达到了巅峰。Tea wares made for the royal family in Jingdezhen,Jiangxi,shone brilliantly among numerous tea wares. New designs of teapots and cups increased continually with the development of tea types.在无数茶具中,江西景德镇进贡给皇室的茶具发出了璀璨的光。随着茶的种类的发展,新的茶壶和茶杯的款式也不断增加。Brewing Chinese tea泡中国茶There are many different ways of brewing Chinese tea depending on variables like the formality of the occasion the means of the people preparing it and the kind of tea For example, green teas are more delicate than oolong teas or water as a result. being brewed. black teas and should be brewed cooler.根据场合的正式程度、人们泡茶的途径以.及所泡茶的种类等要素,有许多种不同的泡中国茶的方式。例如,绿茶要比乌龙茶或红茶更娇嫩,因此不要用开水来泡。Chaou brewing茶顾The chaou is a three piece teaware consisting of a lid,cup/ bowl,and a saucer,which can be used on its own or with tasting cups on the side. Chaou brewing is usually employed in tea tasting situations,such as when buying tea,where neutrality in taste and ease of access to brewing leaves for viewing and sniffing is important. This method of serving is often used in informal situations,though it can also be used in slightly more formal occasions. Chaou brewing can be used for all forms of teas though lightly oxidized teas benefit most from this brewing method.茶贩是一套三件的茶具,由盖子、杯子/碗以及茶碟组成,既可以单独使用,也可以使用旁边的品茶杯。通常在品茶的时候使用茶C}}L泡茶,例如购买茶叶之时,选择口味适中、泡出的茶叶易于观察和闻,这是十分重要的。这种上茶的方法经常用于非正式的场合,但它也可以用于比较正式的场合。各种类型的茶都可以用茶匝泡茶,但是这种泡茶方式最有利于泡略受氧化的茶叶。1. Boil water,or heat to specified temperature for tea,which is 800C for Oolong tea.1. 将水烧开或是煮到特定的温度来泡茶,乌龙茶要煮到80度;2. Heat chaou with boiling water.2. 用开水加热茶贩;3. Add leaves to line bottom of chaou.3. 将茶叶加人到茶的底线;4. Rinse tea leaves and drain.4. 将茶叶漂净并把水倒干;5. Slip water along the side while pouring into cup to 2/3 full5. 将水倒入杯中至三分之二深处并同时用水把边上测一下;6. Wait for 30 seconds,pour the tea.6. 等待30秒后倒茶;7. Serve.7. 上茶。Teapot brewing茶壶泡茶This is a tradition of the Minnan people and Chaozhou or Chaoshan people have made this Kungfu cha famous. Kungfu cha teapot brewing uses small Yixing purple clay teapot to“round out; the taste of the tea being brewed. Yixing teapot brewing sides towards the formal,and is used for private enjoyment of the tea as well as for welcoming guests. The following steps are one popular way to brew tea in a form widely accepted to be a kind of art. This procedure is mostly applicable to Oolong teas only.这是闽南人的传统,而潮州或潮汕人则让这种功夫茶名声大噪。泡功夫茶使用的是宜兴紫砂茶壶来使泡出来的茶味道更加“圆润”。用宜兴茶壶泡茶比较正式,而且也可以用于私人品茶和迎客。下面就是常用的泡茶方法,这种泡茶形式被公认为是一门艺术。这一过程大多数情况下只适用于乌龙茶。1. Boil water.1. 将水烧开;2. Rinse the teapot with hot water.2. 用热水将茶壶洗净;3. Fill the teapot with tea leaves up to one third of the height of the pot.3. 将茶叶加人茶壶中并一直满到茶壶的三分之一高度;4. Rinse the tea leaves by filling the pot with hot water up to half full and draining the water immediately leaving only tea leaves behind.(This step, and all sub- sequent steps involving pouring water, should be performed in a large bowl to catch any overflow.4. 用热水倒进茶壶中一半高的位置,然后立刻将水倒掉并只留下茶叶在里面(这个步骤和下面的所有步骤都需要在大碗中倒水,以防止有水溅出。5. Pour more hot water into the teapot and pour water over the teapot in thelarge bowl. Bubbles should not be permitted to be formed in the teapot. The infusion should not be steeped for too long:30 seconds is an appropriate maximum.5. 将更多的热水倒进茶壶并将水从茶壶中倒人一个大碗,茶壶中不允许出现泡沫。泡茶的时间不能太长,合适的时间最多为30秒;6. Pour the first infusion into small serving cups within a minute by continuously moving the teapot around same flavor and colour. over the cups. Each cup of tea is expected to have the same flavor and colour.6. 通过不断移动茶壶给各个杯子倒茶,在一分钟之内将第一遍冲的茶倒进上茶的小杯子中。每一杯茶都要有同样的香味和色泽;7. Pour excess tea from the first infusion,and all tea from further infusions,into a second teapot after steeping. It is possible to draw five or six good infusions from a single pot of tea,but subsequent infusions must be extended in duration to extract maximum flavour:the second infusion extended by approximately ten seconds to 40 seconds,the third extended to 45.7. 在浸泡之后,将第一遍冲的多余的茶和之后所冲的茶都倒进第二个茶壶中。一壶茶可以冲五六遍,但是之后所泡的茶时间必须延长,以便最大限度地泡出香味。第二遍泡茶时间大约要延长10秒,这样就要泡40秒,而第三遍则要泡45秒。This form of the art of brewing and drinking tea is deeply appreciated by many people,including non-Chinese. Many people are enthusiastic about the art;they enjoy not only the taste of Chinese tea,but also the process of brewing it. The tea culture involved is attractive besides the relaxation it generates,allowing them to purportedly forget all the trouble in their life during the process of brewing,serving and drinking tea. Some people enjoy serving others with a cup of tea not just because they want to share their excellent tea but also their peace of mind with others.这种泡茶和饮茶的艺术形式深受人们的欣赏,这其中还包括外国人。许多人对这门艺术充满热情;他们不仅喜欢品尝中国茶,而且还喜欢泡茶的过程。此外,其中的茶文化还十分吸引人,因为据说它能够让人在泡茶、上茶、饮茶的过程中忘却生活中的一切烦恼,从而使人轻松。有些人喜欢给别人上一杯茶,这不仅是因为他们希望分享美茶,而且还想和别人分享自己的平和心态。 /201506/378846

文章编辑: 飞度排名医院排名