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安庆那个男科飞度管家快答

2018年02月23日 18:18:18 | 作者:飞排名免费咨询 | 来源:新华社
The Association of Southeast Asian Nations should be an economic powerhouse. Asean’s population of 625m is set to grow by 120m before 2030, adding to an abundant pool of labour that complements bounteous natural resources. Yet the 10-member region punches well below its weight: it accounts for 3 per cent of global gross domestic product but is home to 9 per cent of the world’s population. The underachievement derives in part from political and regulatory diversity that undermines regional competitiveness and inhibits inflows of investment into manufacturing and infrastructure.东南亚国家联盟(ASEAN,简称东盟)应成为一个强大的经济集团。东盟的6.25亿人口将030年之前增.2亿,不但可以扩大本就充裕的劳动力储备,而且该地区还拥有丰富的自然资源。然而,这个10国集团的表现并不尽如人意:东盟拥有世%的人口,却只占全球GDP%。这种不佳表现部分源于成员国在政治和监管方面的多样性,这削弱了区域的竞争力,抑制了对制造业和基础设施的投资。Thus the launch of the Asean Economic Community, due by the end of this year, represents a milestone. The AEC aims to accelerate integration and establish a single market and production base. Hopes for the potential on offer are accentuated by a slowdown that has depressed the region’s GDP growth rate to its lowest level since the 2008/09 financial crisis.因此,计划在今年底之前创立的东盟经济共同Asean Economic Community, AEC)具有里程碑意义。AEC旨在加快区域一体化,建立单一的市场和生产基地。对AEC能带来潜力的期待已因为经济放缓而变得更加迫切,该地区的GDP增速下降至2008/09年金融危机以来的最低水平。On paper, the AEC’s aspirations resemble the early days of the European Economic Community. A blueprint agreed in 2007 envisaged a single market and production base, which included measures to standardise trade tariffs and dismantle non-tariff barriers, plus a free flow of services and investment. It allowed for more liberal migrations of skilled labour and freer interchanges of capital.表面上看,AEC的目标类似于欧洲经济共同European Economic Community)成立之初的愿景。东007年通过的一项蓝图设想了单一的市场和生产基地,其中包括规范贸易关税、消除非关税壁垒的措施,以及务和投资的自由流动。它还允许熟练工人更自由地迁徙以及更自由的资本流通。Of these, only a generally free trade in goods has materialised. Trade in services remains hobbled by formal and informal barriers while free flows of capital and investment are far from realised. A more liberalised market for skilled labour is so far away that officials rarely bother to mention it. This paucity of progress is having an effect. Intra-Asian trade has declined over the past 18 months, having flatlined during the previous two years. Such a record detracts from expectations. Indeed, the main impediment to integration is to be found among Asean’s founding principles.这些目标中,只有商品基本自由贸易已经实现。务贸易仍受困于正式及非正式的壁垒,而资本和投资的自由流动还远未实现。对熟练工人而言,更自由的市场如此遥不可及,连官员们都很少愿意再去提及。这种缺乏进展的局面已经带来影响。在经过两年的零增长之后,过8个月,亚洲内部贸易已经出现下滑。这种表现降低了人们的期望值。实际上,东盟一体化的主要障碍存在于该组织的成立原则之中。Unlike the EU, which relies on intrusive powers to ensure policy alignment among its members, the body shows no willingness to jettison its cherished “Asean way a consensus approach to decision-making that discourages “interferencein the internal affairs of fellow members. Too often this results in a frustrating lack of traction.与依靠干预性权力确保成员间政策均等的欧EU)不同,东盟并不愿意放弃其珍视的“东盟方式Asean Way),而这种要求达成一致的决策方式阻碍了对成员国内部事务的“干预”。由此带来的结果通常是令人沮丧的前进动力不足。In addition, there is a debilitating lack of administrative capacity. The Asean secretariat, which is responsible for forwarding the group’s agendas, has a tiny budget (m in 2014) and a skeleton staff that lacks the power to enforce adherence to regional initiatives. Progress towards AEC, for example, is assessed retrospectively with a “scorecardapproach that avoids direct criticism of member states.此外,东盟还缺乏行政管理能力,这是有害的。负责推进组织议程的东盟秘书处的预算很少014年为1700万美元),秘书处的主要官员也没有让各国执行地区动议的权力。例如,用“计分卡”方式对推动AEC的进展进行回顾性评估,以避免直接批评成员国。These features, however, do not tell the whole story. In spite of Asean’s fuzzy focus on integration, other forces buffeting the region are imparting a more irresistible momentum towards reform. The region is a vital part of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership, which ties Asean members into a programme of trade liberalisation with China, India, South Korea, Japan, Australia and New Zealand. In addition, Asean states Malaysia, Singapore, Vietnam and Brunei are founding members of the Trans-Pacific Partnership, a trade agreement with the US.然而,这些特征并不代表全部。尽管东盟自身对一体化态度模糊,冲击该地区的其他势力正带来一种更不可抗拒的改革动力。东盟是“区域全面经济伙伴关系协定Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership)的重要成员,该协定使东盟成员国加入了一项与中国、印度、韩囀?日本、澳大利亚及新西兰的贸易自由化计划中。此外,马来西亚、新加坡、越南及文莱四个东盟国家还是与美国达成的《跨太平洋伙伴关系协定》(Trans-Pacific Partnership,简称TPP)的创始成员囀?It is likely that, even if Asean continues to fight shy of defining its destiny, the promises that members make beyond the region will drive inexorable progress towards integration. Therefore it makes sense to beef up its secretariat’s powers and take a more intrusive approach towards implementing the AEC.即使东盟依然怯于掌握自己的命运,很有可能的是,其成员国在区域之外所做的承诺将不可避免地推动东盟一体化取得进步。因此,有必要强化东盟秘书处的权力,并采取一种更具干预性的方式来落实AEC。来 /201512/413497X is an impressive, slightly scary CEO. You will have heard of him. Y is a smartish, youngish man who works for his company. You won’t have heard of him, unless you work there too in which case the very sound of his name will have you grinding your teeth.甲是一位令人印象深刻、不怒而威的首席执行官,你肯定听过他的大名。乙是个聪明的年轻人,效力于甲的公司。你应该没听说过乙,除非你也在这间公司就职,若果真如此,你一听到乙的名字,一定会恨得咬牙切齿。When Y was hired about three years ago, X took to him at once, decided he was a man of extraordinary talent and in no time at all, Y was given a big department to run. Because Y has neither the experience nor the personality for the job, he is screwing it up.乙大约是三年前被招进来的,甲当时一眼就相中了他。甲认为这个年轻人有着过人的才能,当即就让乙负责一个大部门。由于乙既缺乏经验,也不是那块料,他干得一塌糊涂。Various senior colleagues have protested, but they have been silenced. The CEO cannot and will not see that his protégé is a dog. He is too smitten.许多资深员工都提出过异议,但他们被禁止多说。这位首席执行官既不胀?也不愿承认他的爱将是个窝囊废。他太看好乙了。This story, which I’ve had to doctor a little to avoid getting myself into trouble, is a common one, yet it isn’t an issue that leadership experts ever talk about. Instead they obsess over unconscious bias the latest fashionable way in which all managers take bad decisions about people and pack executives off on training courses to try to conquer their subtle, buried prejudices. But no one seems to worry about what happens when a boss’s bias is neither subtle nor buried but outrageous, and there for everyone to see apart from the boss himself, who is blind to his own bias and instead congratulates himself on his prescience in spotting someone extraordinary.这类故事我们耳熟能详(为避免惹麻烦,我做了些许改动),但领导力专家们却从未谈论过这个问题,反而热衷于谈论“无意识偏见”——这是最近的新潮流,意思是所有经理都识人不准。他们还让高管们参加培训课程,让他们努力克自己那些轻微的、隐蔽的偏见。但似乎没人担心这种情况会导致什么后果,即老板的偏见非但不轻微,反而可谓丧心病狂;非但不隐蔽,反而是人人皆知,只除了老板自己——他非但看不见自己的偏见,反而庆幸自己慧眼识英。The syndrome, which is a major character flaw of some of the world’s finest managers, needs a name and so I’m calling it boss crush. It is when an executive falls for someone, loses all judgment, refuses to listen and ensures that disaster will follow.这种综合征是一种性格缺陷,在全世界最优秀的一些经理人身上也很严重。如果要为这一症状起个名字的话,我打算称之为“老板迷恋症boss crush)。当一个高管迷上某个员工时,他会失去所有判断力,拒绝听取旁人意见,然后灾难肯定随之而来。A version of this was played out recently between David Cameron and Camila Batmanghelidjh. The prime minister developed a crush on the mesmerising, rainbow-turbaned head of Kids Company; large quantities of cash were shovelled into her charity; civil servants asked questions, but nothing happened until things went so spectacularly wrong the plug had to be pulled.最近戴维愠蕓伦(David Cameron)与卡米拉巴特曼海利迪(Camila Batmanghelidjh)之间就上演了这么一出“老板迷恋症”。我们的英国首相迷上了这位魅力四射、包着五头巾的Kids Company负责人,为她的慈善机构提供了大量政府拨款。公务员们对此提出质疑,但一点儿都不管用,直到这家慈善机构问题严重到不可收拾的境地,政府才停止对其拨款。I first became aware of the boss crush phenomenon more than 30 years ago, when I was the love object myself. I was singled out by a cantankerous manager who got it into his head that I was all-round wonderful. I was given a job which I had no idea how to do, yet despite my manifestly indifferent performance, I was repeatedly told I was doing brilliantly.我第一次意识到老板迷恋现象是在三十多年前,当时那个被迷恋的对象就是我自己。一位坏脾气的经理独独认定了我,他满心觉得我是个全方位人才。他给了我一份工作,可我完全不知该怎么做,尽管我的表现明明很平庸,他却不断对我说我有多出色。In some ways I found this nice as I’m a sucker for being told I’m a genius. What was less nice was the feeling of being over-promoted, and what was even less nice was how little my colleagues seemed to like me. I have no idea how it would have ended: the man in question got fired for assorted misdemeanours and shortly afterwards I quit myself.在某些方面,我觉得这样挺好的,因为我喜欢有人说我是个天才。不过感觉自己被过度提拔了就没那么好了,更糟糕的是我的同事似乎很不喜欢我。我不知道这一切会如何结束:那个人后来因各种各样的不当行为被解雇了,不久之后我自己也辞职了。Since then I’ve taken a keen interest in the boss crush phenomenon, and tried to draw some conclusions.此后,我就对“老板迷恋症”产生了浓厚兴趣,试图得出一些结论。First, it has little to do with sex, and everything to do with power. The objects of the crush of a powerful man are as often men as women. Second, it is as random as real love. Sometimes the older boss falls for someone who reminds him of himself but sometimes the object of the love is quite different. Sometimes the loved one is brilliant. Other times they are a liability. Most often they are a mixture of both.首先,这种现象和性别没有什么关系,却与权力有很大关系。位高权重的人迷恋的对象可能是男性,但也同样有可能是女性。第二,这种迷恋和真正的爱情一样具有随机性。有时年纪较大的老板会迷上某个“年轻版”的自己——但有时老板迷恋的对象和他本人截然不同。有时候,被迷恋的人才华卓著。另一些情况下,他们也可能是个扶不起来的窝囊废。通常,他们是两者的混合体。In many cases the object has brought the crush upon themselves following a brilliant campaign of sucking up. (Anyone who doesn’t believe that sucking up works, should a blog post written by Marshall Goldsmith about the love we feel for our dogs, who are the most successful suckers-up ever invented.)在很多情况下,这种迷恋是员工依靠成功的奉承巴结自己获得的。(任何不相信拍马屁有效果的人,都应该读一读马歇尔戈德史密Marshall Goldsmith)撰写的一篇客文章,这篇文章讨论了我们对自家的爱,而是有史以来最成功的奉承者。)But some crush objects have never invited such attention. I can think of one who I used to know, who was grumpy, taciturn and viewed all power with great suspicion and yet was revered by his doting manager.但一些被迷恋对象从未主动寻求关注。我能想到我过去认识的一个人,他脾气暴躁、沉默寡言,对一切权力都抱怀疑态度——然而他的经理很喜欢他,对他推崇备至。Like real love, the boss crush is blind. Worse than that, once the boss has publicly singled out the love-object as worthy of promotion, his pride is on the line. The crush object simply has to be good; nothing else will do. All warning signs are ignored, the truth only outs when it is too late. Then the after-effects of the crush are brutal the former loved one is treated to rage and disdain and usually in the end is fired.像真正的爱一样,老板的迷恋也是盲目的。更糟糕的是,一旦老板公开对自己喜爱的对象另眼相待,声称其值得提拔,他就搭上了自己的自尊。他喜爱的对象必须优秀;否则就不行。一切预警信号都被无视,真相只有在为时已晚的时候才会暴露出来。之后,这种迷恋的后续影响十分残酷——此前被迷恋的人会领教暴怒和蔑视,通常最终还会被炒鱿鱼。The most troubling thing about this phenomenon is that there isn’t an answer. You can’t ban executives from crushes any more than you can ban teenagers. All you can do is notice the sorts of people who are prone to them, and be warned.这种现象最麻烦的地方是它无解。你无法禁止高管们陷入迷恋,就像你无法禁止早恋一样。你唯一能做的就是注意到有这种倾向的人,并保持警惕。In the absence of any studies and based only on my own observation, I’d say those most prone to crushes are sublimely confident of their own judgment, are somewhat isolated and inclined to be strong and charismatic. Which turns out not to be very helpful at all they are just the sort of people most likely to rise to the very top.没有任何相关研究,仅仅是根据我自己的观察,我得说,那些对自己的判断极度自信、某种程度上有点孤僻、喜欢显得强势而有魅力的人,最容易陷入这种迷恋。这个结论似乎根本没多大帮助——这些人正是最有可能爬上最高位的人。来 /201512/416231Far fewer couples than expected have applied for permission to have a second child, a year after Beijing announced the relaxation of its one-child policy to encourage births in an ageing China.在中国政府宣布放松计划生育政策、以求在老龄化的中国鼓励生育一年后,申请生二胎的夫妇数量远低于预期。The National Health and Family Planning Commission announced yesterday that “nearly 1mcouples had applied to have a second child after Beijing decided to allow families where either parent was an only child to bear two. The law had previously granted that concession to urban couples where both parents were only children.国家卫生和计划生育委员会昨日宣布,在中国政府决定允许夫妇一方为独生子女的家庭可申请生二胎后,有“近100万”对夫妇已提出申请。此前,这一政策只允许城市夫妻二人都是独生子女才能生第二胎。The government said at the time that about 11m families would become eligible under the relaxed rules, which were implemented province by province from January last year. It estimated that 2m extra children would be born each year under the new policy. But even with nearly 1m couples applying to have a second child, demographic experts say not all will actually have one.中国政府当时说,自去月政策放宽在各省逐步实施后,大概100万个家庭将符合生二胎条件。官方估计,新政策推行后,每年将增加200万个新生儿。但即使是在这近100万对申请生二胎的夫妇中,人口统计学专家称实际上并非所有夫妇都将再生一个。The commission told a press conference the number of applicants was “in line with expert estimation that there would be no more than 2m babies born per year under the new policy卫计委在昨天的新闻发布会上说,申请生二胎的夫妻数量与专家估算的新政策下每年新生儿不会超过200万的情况相符。He Yafu, an expert on the one-child policy, said: “The actual number of newborn second babies is even lower. I estimate it at 600,000 to 700,000, just one-third of the family planning commission’s estimate. This proves the policy relaxation will not spur rapid population growth and the demographic problem in China is continuing to worsen. We will see more proposals#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;this year to urge the government to banish the family planning policy.”中国计划生育政策专家何亚福说:“新生二孩的实际数量甚至更低。我估计0万到70万之间,仅是卫计委估算的三分之一。这说明政策放松将不会刺激人口快速增长,而中国的人口结构正继续恶化。今年……我们将看到更多的建议,敦促政府取消计划生育政策。”Opinion polls often show a willingness among parents to bear a second child, but this is often not matched by actual births, demographers say. The revised policy affects many parents in large urban centres, where the cost of bearing an extra child, in terms of both time and money, has become prohibitive.人口统计学家称,民意调查往往显示父母愿意生育第二个孩子,但这往往与实际生育情况不相符。修订后的政策影响许多生活在大城市的父母,生育二胎的时间和经济成本使他们望而却步。Birth-planning laws aly allow so many exceptions that many demographers consider it a misnomer to call it a “one-childpolicy. China is facing a critical shortage of labourers caused by 30 years of restricting family size. In 2012 the working-age population of China shrank for the first time.中国的计划生育法规已经允许了太多的例外,因此许多人口统计学家认为“独生子女”政策已名不副实0年来对家庭规模的限制,造成了中国当前面临严重的劳动力短缺012年,中国劳动年龄人口出现了首次下降。来 /201501/354142

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