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2018年02月20日 15:53:11    日报  参与评论()人

淄博市包皮淄博友谊泌尿医院不孕不育科The EU prohibits many harmful ingredients America allows. But multinational corporations are looking to change that.欧盟禁止了许多在美国允许使用的添加剂。但是跨国公司们正在寻求改变这一现状。A speaker at an event I recently attended asked why U.S. food companies put butylated hydroxyltoluene, a food preservative and endocrine disruptor, in cereal sold stateside, while in Europe the same companies formulate the same product without BHT. 我最近参加的一场活动的发言人提出质疑,为什么美国的食品企业将丁基羟基甲苯(BHT)-一种会干扰内分泌的食品添加剂-加入在美国本土销售的麦片里面,与此同时这一公司在欧洲销售的同种产品中没有添加BHT。There are three answers to that question:对于这一质疑有以下三种解释:1.The European Union prohibits numerous harmful ingredients U.S. regulatory agencies allow.1. 欧盟禁止添加许多美国管制机构允许添加的有害添加剂。2.Well-informed European citizens have organized and pushed for those regulations.2.见多识广的欧洲居民们组织并奋力争取了这些(禁止添加有害添加剂的)条款的实施。3.U.S. citizens have not yet pushed for such regulations in sufficient numbers.3.尚未有足够数量的美国居民努力争取过这一类条款的实施。The precautionary principle is an approach to risk management which places the burden of proof to demonstrate a product or ingredient#39;s safety on the corporations that produces the product— prior to releasing it to the public. Over the last few decades, the U.S. has become lax with this approach while Europe proceeds with a greater amount of caution. But that contrast may not survive efforts by the U.S. Trade Representative Michael Froman and multinational corporations, which are currently negotiating super trade treaties behind closed doors.预防原则是一种企业必须进行的明某种产品或添加剂安全性的的原则-在企业将某种产品或添加剂推出市场之前。在过去的几十年里,当美国在食品安全方面更加松懈的时候,欧洲在这一方面则越发谨慎。然而这种差别在美国贸易代表Michael Froman及跨国公司们闭门协商超级贸易协定的努力下可能化为泡影。Such treaties are enacted by Congress through what#39;s known as ;fast-track; legislation, meaning that the President negotiates trade agreements and Congress can only approve or disapprove, but cannot amend or filibuster the legislation.这些协定被利用;快速通道;法案在国会获得通过,意思就是总统协商贸易条款,国会仅能对这些条款进行通过或不通过的批复,而不能对条款进行修改或阻挠立法。According to sources at the negotiations of these treaties, the provisions in them may well eradicate the EU#39;s higher standards. Instead of getting the BHT and other questionable additives out of American products, the negotiated language will likely ;harmonize barriers to trade,; meaning corporations can put all the bad stuff in European products that they can#39;t now.据参加协商的消息来源称,贸易协定中的条款很有可能废除欧洲更高的(食品安全)标准。而不是将BHT和其他有问题的添加剂从美国制造的产品中移除,协商后的条款表述将类似于;和谐贸易障碍;,这意味(食品)企业将被允许在欧洲的产品中添加现在不允许添加的有害物质。Many Europeans vehemently oppose such trade deals because the mainstream media is extensively covering them. Here in the U.S., however, there#39;s pretty much a coverage blackout except for MSN#39;s The Ed Show.由于主流媒体的极力掩盖,许多欧洲人激烈反对这类交易条款。然而在美国这里,除了MSN的The Ed Show之外,(这类消息)全都被墙了。Despite leaks, side conversations and Wikileaks revelations that have given experts the opportunity to assess the deals, the American media and public don#39;t seem too concerned about the outcome. But important questions remain. Let#39;s begin with the obvious: Why are these deals secret? And why should ordinary citizens go along and trust that the secret handshake devised by corporations will serve the greater public good?尽管维基解密等渠道给了专家们评估这些条款的机会,美国媒体和大众们却并不关心评估结果。然而问题依然存在。让我们从最明显的开始:为什么这些条款是保密的?而且,为什么普通市民应该持并信任这些(跨国食品)公司们的秘密协议将务于广大群众的利益?To borrow a phrase from the GMO labeling movement, we need to safeguard the public#39;s right to know. It doesn#39;t matter whether we#39;re talking about secret trade deals or the contents of food, shampoo, building products, industrial emissions, knowledge protects us.借用;转基因标示运动;中的一句话,我们需要保卫大众的知情权。无论我们是否正在讨论这些秘密协定或者食品,洗发水,建筑材料,工业排放物的成分,知识保护我们。Is Knowledge a Barrier to Trade?知识是交易的阻碍么?While the most visible proponents of labeling are groups, like the Organic Consumers Organization, Food Democracy Now!, and Just Label It! which call for mandatory labeling of GMO-containing foods, GMOs are not the only food ingredients some people would like to see labeled in food. A small sample of others include:正当主要的标示运动持者结成团体-例如有机产品消费者组织,食物皿煮现在行动!,以及标示起来!-并且呼吁强制标示含转基因成分食品之时,转基因成分并不是一些人们寻求标示出的唯一的食品添加成分。其他被呼吁标出的成分中的一小部分如下:Allergenic ingredients (like wheat or egg)致敏成分(例如小麦或鸡蛋)Pro-inflammatory ingredients (like MSG or food colorings)导致发炎的成分(例如味精或食品染色剂)Obesogenic substances (like high fructose corn syrup aka HCFS)致胖成分(例如果葡糖浆-又称HCFS)Other stuff that has not been well studied (or studied at all) like certain ;flavors; or ;fragrances;其他未被充分研究(或根本未被研究)的物质,例如某些;调味剂;或;芳香剂;It doesn#39;t end with food. Women purchasing cosmetics or face creams want to know whether they contain methyl parabens which studies find concentrated in cancerous tumors. Parents buying their children#39;s car seats or nursing pillows want assurances that these products don#39;t contain toxic flame retardants. Homeowners and office dwellers want to know if their building materials and furnishings contain toxins like phthalates, which are associated with damage to the liver, thyroid and reproductive system. 并不仅仅是食物。女性购买化妆品或面霜时希望了解这些商品是否含有基苯甲酸甲酯-一种曾在癌症肿瘤中找到的物质。父母为他们的子女购买车用儿童座椅和哺乳枕的时候希望这些产品中不含有有毒阻燃剂。自有房屋者和上班族希望知道他们生活和上班的地方的建筑材料里面是否含有钛酸盐-一种与肝、甲状腺和生殖系统损伤有关的物质。And let#39;s not forget the chemicals used in fracking, emissions from manufacturing plants and gas pipeline infrastructures, methane and carbon dioxide releases contributing to climate change, and nuclear waste. Whether it#39;s consumer goods, building materials, or the energy industries, toxic outputs need to be monitored for health and environmental impacts. That#39;s impossible to do without the right to know what they contain, emit or produce. The only way to track them is through product labeling.并且不要忘记水压压裂中用到的化学物质,加工厂和燃气管道建造过程中的排放物,导致气候变化的甲烷和二氧化碳排放以及核废料。为了健康和环境影响,无论是日用品,建筑材料还是能源工业的有毒排放物都需要被监测。如果不知道他们(上述行为和排放物)包含什么,释放什么或者制造出来的是什么,这些监测行动根本无从谈起。追踪这些的唯一办法就是通过产品标示。Banning the Precautionary Principle取消;预防原则;From the perspective of corporations, the less the public knows about what their products contain or emit, the better. When knowledge deters people from a product or process, the industry considers that knowledge a barrier to trade. And the new uber-trade deals, the Trans Pacific Partnership (TPP) and Trans Atlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) are poised to be fast-tracked through Congress with a quick up or down vote, even before the treaties#39; contents are made known to Congress or the public.从公司的视角来看,大众对于他们生产什么或者排放什么知道的越少越好。当知识阻止人们(购买)产品或(从事)行为时,工业(所有者)就会将知识看成贸易的阻碍。并且新的超级贸易条款,跨太平洋伙伴协议(TPP)以及跨大西洋贸易及投资伙伴协议(TTIP)整时刻准备着通过快速通道在国会中进行迅速直接表决,甚至在协议条款并未被国会或公众知晓之前。;Big chemical companies, pesticide manufacturers, the manufacturers of products which are associated with cancer, autism, learning disabilities in children, and a host of other serious illnesses are attempting to use these trade regulations to stop government regulations of dangerous chemicals all around the globe,; says William Waren, senior trade analyst with Friends of the Earth.;大型化工企业,杀虫剂制造商,这些制造可能导致癌症,自闭症,儿童学习障碍以及大量其他严重疾病的产品的公司正试图利用这些贸易条款在全球范围内废止政府限制危险化学品的政策。;Friends of the Earth 的高级交易分析员William Waren说。;When we can#39;t adequately quantify risk, the burden of proof is on the party that would introduce a potentially risky product to show that the risk is low enough to avoid harm public health and the environment,; he continues.;当我们无法充分量化风险时,举责任就落到了那些愿意介绍一种具有潜在风险的产品来展示其中的风险足够低,且并不会对公众健康或环境造成负面影响的一方头上;他继续说道。When the precautionary principle is dismantled, as it is in U.S. policy, companies make it the public#39;s responsibility to show harm. Unless people go to extraordinary lengths to demonstrate a safety problem, corporations have no responsibility to guarantee safety.如预防原则被废止,就如美国现在的政策这样,公司就将发现损害的责任转移到了公众头上。除非人们用足够长(的时间)来明其确实存在安全隐患,否则公司将不再有保(产品)安全的责任。Current federal regulations are riddled with loopholes due to four decades of industry lobbying and legal opposition to proper safeguards. Efforts by major coalitions like Safer Chemicals, Healthy Families have been stalled.现存联邦法规由于四十年的工业游说和对适当保护措施的合法反对,已经千疮百孔。像;更安全的化工产品;,;健康家庭;这样主要组织的努力已陷入停滞。In the void left by our nation#39;s failure to regulate, some states, such as California, have taken it upon themselves to regulate toxic chemicals. The California Environmental Quality Act requires that ;no projects which would cause significant environmental effects should be approved as proposed if there are feasible alternatives or mitigation measures that would lessen those effects,; and ;environmental impact reports shall be used to provide full public disclosure of the environmental impacts of a proposed project.;在我们的国家规定失效留下的空白中,一些州,例如加利福尼亚,自行制定了规范有毒化学品的法规。加州环境质量法案要求;没有任何可能造成严重环境影响的工程可以获得通过-如存在可替代或减缓措施以减少这些影响的话;并且;必须提交(拟议计划的)环境影响报告以公开披露拟议计划的环境影响。;;It#39;s incremental but it#39;s real important, given the incapacity of the EPA to act,; notes Waren.;这增加了成本,但确实非常重要,考虑到环保局的无能为力;,Waren表示。Waren says that the ;Technical Barriers to Trade; chapters in treaties would also enact stringent limits on all governments, rolling back product safety regulations in Europe and elsewhere and freeze in place the current ineffective U.S. federal regulations. In addition, state regulations would be rolled back or nullified.Waren还说协议中;贸易的技术障碍;一章还会对严格要求(协议相关的)所有政府,在欧洲和其他国家按照现行美国联邦法案来修改其产品安全法规,同时冻结现行美国联邦法规。此外,州法案也将被降低至原来水平或取消。Europeans would have to eat their BHT and like it. No longer able to study health or environmental impacts, under threat of lawsuits by international trade tribunals, Californians would not be empowered to prevent fracking companies from dumping fracking waste into water aquifers—as recently occurred in Central Valley, California.欧洲人将被迫使用BHT并且喜欢上它。不再能够了解健康或环境影响,在被国际贸易法庭起诉的风险下,加州将不允许再对页岩气生产企业向地下含水层注入有害化工原料进行限制-正如最近在加州中央山谷发生的。;This is one of the leading negotiating points for the U.S. and they are making a lot of headway,; says Waren. ;The whole question of rolling back state and local safeguards on food and the environment is a very, very important one because a lot of states have aly acted in various ways, like New York which banned fracking.;;这是美国政府的主要谈判点之一,并且他们取得了很大进步;Waren说,;将州与地方食品安全与环境保护法案降至原来水平这一整个问题非常非常重要,因为许多州已经在用不同方法采取了行动,例如纽约州就禁止使用水力压裂法(采取页岩气)。;Waren says fast-track trade legislation is a ;fundamental attack on democracy. It#39;s frightening.;Waren将快速通过贸易法案形容为;对皿煮的根本攻击。令人恐惧;。 /201503/362010高青县治疗睾丸炎哪家医院最好 For the Taiwanese chef Lanshu Chen, cooking is only part of the job. The chef, who worked at high-profile restaurants like the French Laundry in Napa Valley, owns Le Mo#251;t Restaurant in Taichung City, Taiwan, a member of the Relais amp; Ch#226;teaux group. In early March, Ms. Chen, 34, was in Carmel-by-the Sea, Calif., for Relais amp; Ch#226;teaux’s GourmetFest, featuring more than 20 well-known chefs.对台湾大厨陈岚舒来说,烹饪只是工作的一部分。她曾在纳帕谷的French Laundry等著名餐馆工作,如今她在台湾台中市拥有自己的餐厅——Le Mo#251;t,它是罗兰夏朵酒店集团(Relais amp; Ch#226;teaux)的成员。3月初,34岁的陈岚淑来到加利福尼亚州卡梅尔,参加罗兰夏朵美食节(Relais amp; Ch#226;teaux’s GourmetFest),有20多位知名大厨参与这次盛会。Following are edited excerpts from a conversation with Ms. Chen.下面的对话经过编辑和浓缩。Q. How much are you on the road for work?问:你经常出差吗?A. I take a dozen or so trips a year, but they’re usually short — between two and three days — because I’m always in a rush to get back to cooking at Le Mo#251;t.答:我一年旅行十几次,不过通常都很短,大概两三天,因为我总是急忙赶回Le Mo#251;t烹饪。GourmetFest is one of many annual global food festivals. What do you think these festivals mean for both the participating chefs and attendees?问:罗兰夏朵美食节是很多年度全球美食节之一。你觉得这些美食节对大厨和观众们来说有什么意义?As a chef, it is truly enjoyable and inspiring to have a chance to exchange ideas and to celebrate with other chefs. And for the people who come to the festivals, you’re not limited to trying one style of cooking, and you get a sense of different chefs’ perceptions of foods and their personal cultures.答:作为大厨,有机会和其他大厨交流、欢聚,真的让人感到愉快和振奋。参加美食节的观众不是只限于体验某种风格的食物,还可以感受到不同大厨对美食的理解和个体文化。While female chefs like yourself have certainly become more visible in the food world in recent years, they still seem to lag behind their male counterparts. Why do you think that is?问:近些年,像你这样的女大厨无疑在美食界变得越来越出名,不过,出名的女大厨似乎还是没有男大厨多。你觉得原因是什么?I think it is simply because there haven’t been enough female chefs, which dates back to old societal norms of what roles are acceptable for women. But I do think that is slowly changing, and there are more of us committing ourselves professionally to this field.答:我觉得这只是因为女大厨还不够多,这要追溯到社会对女性角色的传统规范。但我的确认为,情况在慢慢变化,越来越多的女人专心投身到这个职业领域。You have international training, but you chose to go home to open your own restaurant in 2008. Why?问:你接受过国际培训,但2008年你选择回故乡开设自己的餐馆。这是为什么?I had been thinking about having my own place for a while and thought that Taiwan is where it should be because the concept of what I wanted to do — a fine-dining contemporary French spot with subtle Taiwanese influences — didn’t really exist in the country.答:开餐馆之前,我有这个想法已经一段时间了。我觉得应该回台湾开餐馆,因为当时台湾没有我想开设的这种概念的餐馆——一个略受台湾影响的高档当代法式餐馆。Is that how you would describe the food at Le Mo#251;t?问:这是你对Le Mo#251;t餐馆的食物的概括吗?Yes. It’s a balance of my roots and my training abroad, and I use a lot of local fruits and vegetables that are harder to find elsewhere. One example is turnips. I use preserved turnips, which are very salty, to add in a touch of saltiness into sauces, or I’ll make turnip carpaccio and serve it with an egg yolk.答:是的。它是我的根源和我在国外接受的训练的结合。我选用很多本地果蔬,这些东西在别的地方比较难找。比如萝卜。我使用腌制芜菁,它非常咸,可以用来给酱增加一点点咸味,或者用它来做萝卜牛肉片,和蛋黄一起上桌。When you travel, what kinds of culinary experiences do you look for, and what advice do you have for travelers who want to stay away from generic and touristy places on the road?问:你旅行时想获得什么样的美食体验?对那些想远离拥挤的普通景点的游客,你有什么建议?I like a mix of food experiences and encourage the same for anyone else. Visiting a new place is not just about dining at the big-name restaurants. I do that, of course, but I like to let the chefs of these fancier places show me their favorites in town. And I’m a fan of street food, especially in Asia where there is such a strong tradition of it, so I definitely get a taste of this side of a city as well.答:我喜欢丰富多样的美食体验,也鼓励其他人这样做。到一个新地方,不只是要去著名餐馆用餐。我去著名餐馆用餐时,喜欢让那里的大厨们告诉我,他们最喜欢城里的哪些餐馆。我也很喜欢路边摊,特别是在亚洲,那里的路边摊传统悠久深厚,所以我肯定也会品尝一下城市的这一面。What has been your most memorable meal so far?问:到目前为止,你印象最深刻的大餐是什么?The four-hour dinner I had three years ago at Ultraviolet in Shanghai, which is run by the French chef Paul Pairet. The restaurant hosts only 10 diners a night, and the meal engages all the senses. When I was served a dish with mushrooms and truffles, it came covered in a black lid and was emanating smoke, and the air smelled of soil and fog. Also, there are projectors which display images on the wall to correspond with the dishes you’re eating, and this one was of the forest. You literally felt like you were in the forest.答:三年前在上海Ultraviolet餐馆的四小时长晚餐。那家餐厅是法国大厨保罗·派雷特(Paul Pairet)经营的,每晚只务十位客人,那里的食物能刺激你的所有感官。有一道菜是蘑菇与松露,盖着黑色盖子,冒着烟,有点泥土和烟雾的味道。墙上有投影仪,展示的图片与你正在食用的食物相配。这道菜上来时,展示的图片是森林。你真的感觉瞬间置身森林。As a chef, eating well must be a priority for you. Is there any food from home you make sure to take with you when you’re on the road?问:作为大厨,对你来说,吃得好肯定是最重要的。有没有什么家乡食物是你出门在外一定要带的?Tea is very important to me because it brings me calm and relaxation, so I always travel with loose black and oolong tea and enjoy it in my hotel room. If I have space, I even bring a teapot and cups.答:茶对我来说非常重要,因为它能让我平静、放松,所以旅行时我总是带着散装红茶和乌龙茶,在酒店房间里享用。如果旅行箱里有地方,我甚至会带上茶壶和茶杯。 /201504/368022淄博第一医院

博山区治疗性功能障碍哪家医院最好Major Styles of Traditional Chinese Residences raditional Chinese residences reflect the national culture,the sub-culture of a specific region and that of the ethnic group within it.中国传统民居的主要风格传统的中国民居反映了民族文化、一个特定地区的亚文化以及居住其中的族群的亚文化。The traditional domestic architecture of China has five major styles. There is the compound with a courtyard(Si He Yuan)to be seen in northern China,Farmers#39; Caves(Yao Dong) in Northern Shaanxi Province and Earthen Buildings(Tu Lou ) in southeast China#39;s Fujian Province,Stilt Houses that may be on steep inclines or projetting over water(Diao Jiao Lou)in southern China and the Seal-like Compound (Yi Ke Yin)in Yunnan province.中国传统的国内建筑分为五种主要风格。在中国北方有四合院,陕西省北部有窑洞,中国东南的福建省有土楼,中国南方有耸立在陡峭的斜坡或伸向水面的吊脚楼以及云南省的一颗印。Traditional residences tend to conform to their environment and to become integrated with it. They are expelled to blend with the surrounding rivers and mountains, thus complementing but never spoiling the natural beauty.传统的民居一般遵循其环境的特点并与其融为一体。它们要与周围的山川河流融合在一起,因此要突出而绝不能破坏自然的美感。Our ancestors made use of local materials and took the natural factors into consideration whenever they built a house.我们的祖先在建造房屋时都要使用当地的材料并考虑到自然因素。The Si He Yuan in northern China features a thick roof and walls and a wide courtyard to draw in maximum sunlight while ventilation is a prime feature of the diao jiao lou in the much warmer tropical climate of southern China.中国北方的四合院的特点是厚顶、厚墙和宽敞的院子,这样可以最大限度地进行采光,而对于地处中国南方温暖的热带气候中的吊脚楼来说,通风条件则是它的主要特点。The Si He Yuan in Beijing reflects the formal royal ambiance with its symmetrical style while garden-residences such as the famous Garden of the Master of the Nets in Suzhou,Jiangsu Province,gives priority to a harmonious blend with nature.Prince Gong#39;s Mansion in Beijing is the world#39;s largest Si He Yuan.北京的四合院通过其对称的风格体现出正式的皇家氛围,而园林住宅则注重与自然的和谐统一,诸如江苏省苏州著名的网师园。北京的恭王府则是世界上最大的四合院。In calligraphy,the Chinese characters with a roof-like component relate to various houses. For example,with。pig , it is。home; with。cow, it is。prison;with a combination of iwo mouths it means #39;many houses’一it is palace. Such characters combined with that for‘woman’imply peace and safely. The logic behind this is based on two layers of meaning. Frstly,when a woman sits peacefully at home,it means there is no war. Secondly, when they lived in simple caves in open air, our ancestors faced the hazards of rough weather, wild animals and hostile tribes. By building houses,they were better protected,thus there was safety.在书法中,带有宝盖头的汉字都与各种房屋有关。例如“占”加上猪之后就成了“家”,加上牛之后就成了牢,加上两个口之后就表示“许多房屋”—也就是宫。而和“女”字旁组合在一起的汉字则表示和平与安全。这其中的逻辑建立在两层含义之上。首先,当一名女子安全地坐在家中时,这就意味着没有战争。其次,当我们的祖先住在野外简单的洞穴中时,他们面对的是恶劣天气、野生动物以及敌对,落的危险。通过建造房屋,他们便获得了更好的保护,因而就得到了安全。Chinese Residence — Earliest Form of Architectural Art中国住宅——最早的建筑艺术形式Before the Qin Dynasty,the residential houses both for emperors and folks were all called palace. The term palace became a specific title for emperors#39; residente since the Qin and Han dynasties(221一220AD ).In modern times, all the other residential houses except palace and official buildings are called folk residente.在秦朝以前,皇帝和老百姓的住房都被称作宫殿。“宫”这个称谓是从秦朝和汉朝时才开始专门指皇帝的住居。在现代,除了宫殿和官方建筑之外的所有住房都被称作民居。The Chinese wooden framework house first appeared in the late Neolithic Age.The Hemudu Culture Site (5 OOO一3 300) in Yuyao County, Zhejiang Province reflected the wood construction techniques of this period. The Banpo Site in Xi#39;an and Yangshao Culture Site in Jiong village, Lintong, Shaanxi Province revealed the overall layout of villages and constructions of this period. Chinese residences can be divided roughly into nine kinds:中国的木质框架房屋最早出现在新石器时代晚期。浙江省余姚县的河姆渡文化遗址(公元前5000一公元前3300年)表现了当时的木质建筑艺术。西安的半坡遗址和陕西省临撞姜寨的仰韶文化遗址都反映出当时村落与建筑的整体布局。中国的民居可以大致分为九种类型:Beijing#39;s Siheyuan北京的四合院This is the most important form of Chinese traditional residential house.It is great in number and wide in distribution,popular among the Han,Manchu,Bai, and some of other minority groups.Most of the houses are of wood framework. The principal room is built on the southnorth axis, and iwo wing rooms are located on both sides of it. The family elders live in the principal room and wings are the bedrooms for the younger generations. Women live in the inner yard. Guests and male servants live in the outer yard. This distribution is in accordance with the feudal regulations. 5i He Yuan sps over towns and villages throughout China,but each developed its own characteristics as a result of respective natural conditions and different way of life. 5i He Yuan in Beijing is the most tive.这是中国传统民居中最重要的形式。它的数量多、分布广,并且在汉族、满族、白族以及其他少数民族中一十分流行。大多数房屋采用木质框架。主屋建在南北走向的轴线,而厢房则位于四合院的两侧。家庭中的长者住在主屋中,而两翼则由年轻一代居住。妇女住在内院。客人和男仆住在外院。这种分布符合封建礼制。四合院遍布全国的城乡,但由于各地自然条件和生活方式各有不同,因此发展出各自的特征。北京的四合院是最具代表性的。Jiangsu Residence江苏民居Residential houses distributed in areas south of the Yangtze River have a lot of names, but the overall arrangement is generally the same with Si He Yuan. The difference between the two is that houses in the south have smaller yards(or tianlin9 ),with only two functions; drainage and daylighting. The principal room in the first yard is usually a big hall. The yards in the back are usually smaller, mostly with storied buildings. Roof covered with small tiles and floor with flagstones help to adapt the rainy climate in the south. Houses in watery regions are usually built along rivers,with the front door leading to the alley and backdoor facing the river.Every household has a small dock where they do the washing, bailing and getting on boats.长江以南的地区所分布的房屋有很多名称,但是整体安排通常与四合院是相同的。两者的不同就在于南方房屋的院子(或称为天井)更小而且只有两个功能:排水和采光。第一间院子中的主屋通常是一间大厅。后面的院子则通常小一些,而且大部分都带有楼房。房顶盖_L小瓦而地面则铺上了石板,这有助于适应南方的多雨气候。在雨水充沛的地区,房屋通常是沿着河流建造的,而且前门通向小巷而后门面向河流。家家户户都有一个小型码头,以便在这里洗衣、取水、乘船。U-Shaped Houses of South China中国南方的U形房屋The houses in Yunnan Province in southwest China can be a good representative of this kind of building,and they could also be found in southern provinces like Hunan. The overall structure arrangement is more or less the same with Si He Yuan,but the houses are all connected together at every comer, forming the shape of U. The houses are made of wood truss with earth walls, on which are color I paintings.在中国西南部的云南省,那里的房屋可以很好地代表这一类建筑,在湖南等南方省份也可以见到这种建筑。它的整体结构安排多少与四合院比较相似,但是所有的房屋的每个角落都连在一起,因此就形成了U形。这些房屋是由木质析架和土墙建造的,上面还有色图画。Lingnan Hakka Group Houses岭南客家房屋群Tu Lou is a traditional dwelling for Hakkas in west Fujian Province. There are three to four floors in average, and the tallest can have up to six floors. Including the houses in the yard,Tu lou can usually hold more than 50 families. Halls,storage houses, domestic animal houses,wells and other public houses are in the yard. The Hakkas created this special defensive building to protect themselves, and it#39;s still in use now.土楼是福建省西部的客家传统住宅。它平均为三至四层,最高达六层。包括院子里的房屋在内,土楼通常可以容纳50多个家庭。大厅、储藏室、牲口圈、水井以及其他公共房屋都位于院子中。客家人建造这种特殊的防御性建筑的目的是为了保护自己,而且现在依然在使用这种建筑。Cave Dwelling of Northwest China中国西北的窑洞Cave dwellings are mainly distributed in central and west provinces like Henan,Shanxi,Shaanxi,where the loess is of great depth.The loess has little seepage and a very strong vertical nature,which provides a very good precondition for the development of cave dwellings. The cliff cave dwelling is an earth cave dug horizontally along the vertical earth cliff. Residence built in this way saves raw materials and requires less complicated technology.The cave dwelling is cool in summer and warm in winter.窑洞主要分布在河南、山西、陕西、甘肃以及青海等中西部地区,那里的黄土十分深。黄土的性质不容易渗水而且垂直方向强度很大,因此为窑洞的发展提供了极好的先决条件。悬崖上的窑洞是沿着垂直土崖水平挖成的土洞。通过这种方式建造的民居节省了原材料而且不需要复杂的技术。窑洞冬暖夏凉。Ganlan干栏Ganlan(a wood or bamboo storied house)are mainly distributed in the southwest provinces of China,such as Yunnan,Guizhou,Guangdong and Guangxi. It is the residence for Dai,Jingpo,Zhuang and other minority groups.干栏(木质或竹质多层房屋)主要分布在中国的西南省份,例如云南、贵州、广东以及广西。它是傣、景颇、壮以及其他少数民族的民居。A Ganlan usually stands alone, seporated from other Ganlan houses.Supported by poles,the living sector of GanIan is usually on the second floor high above the ground,while the first storey is retained for raising domestic animals and storing;in this way Ganlan can ward off moisture,as well as the attack of insects,snakes and other animals.干栏通常是与其他千栏建筑分开的独立建筑。通过撑杆的撑,干栏的居住部分通常位于较高的第二层,而第一层则用于饲养家畜和储物,这样干栏不仅可以防潮,而且可以防止昆虫、蛇以及动物的袭击。Diaofang碉房Diaofang(Stone Chamber) is the most popular kind of dwellings in Tibet and some areas in Inner Mongolia. According to rh,} Hi.}cory of Later Harp HmZa.sry,this stone and earth dwellings existed before 111 AD. The height of the dwellings varies from two to three storeys. Built mostly of stone and earth,they look like Diaolou (blockhouse),and hence got the name of Diaofang. The origin of its name can be traced back to 1736 in the era of Qianlong Reign of the Qing Dynasty.碉房是西藏和内蒙古部分地区最普遍的民居。根据《后汉书》记载,这种土石民居早在公元111年之前便存在了。这种民居的高度为两层或三层。它们主要用土石建造,外观像碉楼,因此便被叫做碉房。它这个名称的由来可以追溯到清朝乾隆年间的1736年。The first floor is often used for livestock and poultry,and the second is retained as bedrooms,living rooms,kitchen and storehouse. Some have a third floor for the family sutra hall and the balcony.第一层经常用于饲养家畜和家禽,而第二层则留作卧室、客厅、厨房以及储藏室。有些碉房还有第三层,这用作家庭藏经室和阳台。The nomadic Mongolians and Tibetans also live in tents,which are convenient to assemble and unassembled.从事游牧的蒙古族和藏族人也住在帐篷中,这十分便于拆卸。Mongolian yurts蒙古包The Mongolian felt tent in northwest China is called Mongolian yurts.The wooden wattles are fastened with leather thongs and studs to form a fence-like structure. Each part of the yurt is ingenious and quite convenient to dissemble and carry. The diameter of a small yurt is about four to six meters,with no pillar inside, while the bigger one needs two to four poles to support the yurt. There are thick felts on the ground of yurts. Every yurt has an opening on the top,and there#39;s usually a stove under it.中国西北部蒙古族人的毡帐被称作蒙古包。它的木条用皮带和钉子固定而形成类似于篱笆的结构。蒙古包的每一个部分都十分精巧并且十分便于拆装。小型蒙古包的直径大约为四至六米,里面没有柱子,而较大的蒙古包则需要两至四根杆子来撑。蒙古包的地面有厚毡。每个蒙古包的顶部都有开口,而且这下面通常还有一个炉子。Ayiwang阿以旺Ayiwang is the Uygur residence. The houses are all connected together, with yard around them. The front room with a skylight is called Ayiwang,also known as summer room,which serves as the living room as well as reception room. The back house called winter room is the bedroom,usually without a skylight. The plane arrangement is very ingenious.阿以旺是维吾尔族的民居。所有的房屋都连成一片,周围还有院子。前面带天窗的房间被称作阿以旺,又叫夏室,它是用来当客厅和会客室的;后室称作冬室,它通常没有天窗。其平面布局非常精巧。There are also some other special residential houses such as the boat house. Nowadays,as a result of economic development, population increase and modernization,people in the cities usually live in storied buildings, which have increasingly diversified styles and a tendency of height rise.还有诸如船屋等一些特殊的民居。如今由于经济的发展、人口的增加以及现代化程度提高,城市里的人们通常住在楼房里,楼房的风格日益多样化且高度得以增加。 /201506/379728淄博哪家医院看前列腺好 淄博高青县割痔疮多少钱

齐鲁石化淄博医院You introduce two of your good friends to each other in hopes that they, too, can become good friends. But when they start to bond in an unexpected way and hang out without you, might you regret introducing them to each other in the first place?你介绍自己的两个好友相互认识,希望他们也能成为好朋友。但有一天,你却发现他们的关系好到会忽略你单独,你会不会后悔当初介绍她们认识?Andrea Lavinthal, co-writer of the best-selling book Friend or Frenemy?: A Guide to the Friends You Need and the Ones You Don’t, told The New York Times in a recent interview: “Most girls won’t admit this, but they’d rather you hit on their significant other than their best friend.” Another writer of the book is Jessica Rozler.安德莉亚#8226;拉雯瑟和杰西卡#8226;罗丝勒合著的《朋友或友敌:如何找到你需要的朋友》一书极为畅销。近日,拉雯瑟在接受《纽约时报》采访时表示,“虽然很多女孩儿不愿承认这一点,但是她们宁可你认识她重要的朋友,也不愿把最好的朋友介绍给你认识。”Lavinthal said she once introduced two friends to each other over brunch. A few weeks later, she stumbled onto the two women having dinner together in a restaurant, and learned they’d been spending quite a bit of time together.拉雯瑟说,她曾在一次早午饭上介绍自己的两位好友认识,几周之后,她在一家餐馆撞见这两位闺蜜,才得知她们常常在一起(完全忽略了她)。“There they were in the restaurant, loving each other, probably talking about how I’m not funny enough or smart enough,” she said. “What do you say? Are you going to insist that whenever they hang out, you be there? That’s weird. Are you going to bring it up and be bereft? That’s an interaction so hard for girls.”拉雯瑟说,“她们一起在餐馆,相谈甚欢,也许还在一起说我如何无趣、不够聪明。如果是你,你会怎么做?坚持她们出来逛就要带上你?这要求也太奇葩了吧!或是任其发展,直到自己失去友谊?这些对于女孩儿来说实在太虐心了。”Feeling froggy跳背游戏:谁偷了我的朋友What Americans call “friend stealing” is “leapfrogging” in Britain. But perhaps there’s no need for us to make a fuss about being leapfrogged. Ronald Sharp is a professor of English at Vassar College, US, who co-edited The Norton Book of Friendship with Eudora Welty. Sharp said: “The anxiety about social poaching stems from an inappropriate or distorted view of what friendship is. It views friendship as a zero-sum game, or as an attempt to maximize your resources. It converts the natural generosity of friendship into a kind of investment.”对于“越过共同的朋友单独联系”这种情况,美国人称之为“偷朋友”,而英国人则叫它“跳背游戏”。不过,也许我们并不用对此太过小题大做。美国瓦萨学院的英语教授罗纳德#8226;沙普曾与尤多拉#8226;韦尔蒂合著了《友谊的诺顿之书》,沙普教授认为,“这种对于社交领域‘挖墙脚’的担忧其实是由于不恰当或扭曲的友谊观所致。它将友谊视为一种‘你死我活’的零和游戏,或企图通过友谊来最大程度丰富人脉。这些观念都让本身慷慨无私的友情变成了一种(自私的)投资。”Sharp added, “If you can’t trust your friend to have a relationship with another person you consider a friend, it’s a clear symptom of a problem in your friendships.”沙普教授还补充道,“如果你连介绍另一个人给自己的好友都不放心,显然你们的友谊存在问题。”So how do you deal with being leapfrogged? Sharp said: “Part of the burden is on the friendmaker to assure the insecure friend that everything is OK. But part of the burden should also be on the original friend not to be anxious about it.”那么,要如何应对“朋友跳过自己单独联系”的情况?沙普认为,“获得介绍、成为朋友的一方有责任安抚没有安全感的那个朋友。但另一方面,作为朋友们的介绍人,你也应该放宽心。”Take it easy and be patient. In Lavinthal’s case, patience paid off. She said of the two women whom she had introduced to each other: “They became better and better friends. It was weird for a while. But then somehow, organically, I got brought back into the fold. Their friendship cooled off a little bit, and we all found our way back.”别焦虑,要有耐心!从拉雯瑟的例子中就可以看出耐心的意义。她说:“看着那两个经自己介绍而认识的朋友关系日益亲密,自己确实有一段时间心里不舒,但是,渐渐地我又开始融入她们之中,随着她们友谊恢复平静,我们似乎又回到了从前的样子。”She added: “I feel like I’m the hot item again. They need me now. They need me to get back to the root of why they’re friends.”拉雯瑟还说,“我发现自己又成了‘香饽饽’,她们现在都需要我,因为我才是她们友谊的源头。” /201411/343909 淄博哪家医院治疗慢性尖锐湿疣好淄博男科医院哪最好

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