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呼和浩特清水河县男科妇科网上预约飞度技术推荐医院呼和浩特最好妇科医院

2018年02月23日 18:28:04    日报  参与评论()人

呼和浩特市中医院治疗女性不孕多少钱鄂尔多斯市第一人民妇幼中医院预约挂号With temperatures rising four times faster than anywhere else in Asia, the Tibetan Plateau might soon lose most of its glacier and permafrost, affecting water supplies throughout Asia, Chinese scientists say.青藏高原的气温上升速度比亚洲其它地区快了四倍,中国科学家说青藏高原上绝大部分的冰川和永动层或许不久就将消失殆尽,这将影响亚洲各地的淡水供应。Long known as the ;roof of the world,; the Tibetan Plateau is about the size of Western Europe and supplies water to nearly 2 billion people in Asia as the source of several major rivers, including the Yangze, Mekong, Salween (Gyalmo Ngulchu), Indus, Brahmaputra and Yellow rivers.作为早就闻名遐迩的“世界屋脊”,青藏高原的面积和西欧差不多。这一地区是包括长江、湄公河、萨尔温江、印度河、雅鲁藏布江和黄河在内的几条大河的源头,向亚洲近20亿人供应着淡水。But because of the impact of climate change, the glaciers are retreating rapidly, grasslands are shrinking as desertification expands, regional precipitation has become irregular, water levels are dropping in major rivers and the permafrost is thawing.但受气候变化影响,这里的冰川迅速消退,草原面积不断减小,荒漠化面积不断增加,区域降水反常,几条大河的水位不断下降,永冻层也在持续融化。The melting of Tibetan glaciers, the largest mass of frozen fresh water outside the polar regions, is linked to many environmental consequences both locally and globally, including heat waves in Europe, according to some studies.青藏高原储藏着除两极地区以外最多的冰冻淡水。一些研究显示,这一地区的冰川融化与多种区域性和全球性的环境影响有关,比如欧洲的热浪。Glacial retreat冰川消融Chinese officials estimate Tibet holds 14.5 percent of the worlds total glacier mass. While there are a few different theories on what is causing the glaciers to melt, researchers agree the pace is staggering.中国官方预计西藏地区拥有占全世界14.5%的冰川储量。尽管对引起冰川融化的原因还存在不同说法,但研究者们都认为青藏高原冰川消融的速度是惊人的。Chinas state-run Xinhua news agency reported in April that an average of 247 square kilometers of glacier is disappearing annually, and that some 7,600 square kilometers of glacier, or about 18 percent of the total, has disappeared since the 1950s.今年4月,中国官方的新华社报道,青藏高原平均每年有247平方公里的冰川消融。自上世0年代以来,已经有大约7600平方公里的冰川消失,这占到青藏高原冰川总量的大8%。Zhang Mingxing, a Chinese official who heads the Tibet Mountaineering Administration, said the glacier at the Everest base camp, 5,200 meters above sea level, has aly disappeared. ;There is nothing but stones (left),; he was ed as saying by Xinhua.西藏登山运动管理中心主任张明兴说,在海拔5200米的艾佛勒斯峰(珠穆朗玛峰)大本营区的冰川已经消失。新华社援引他的描述说,那里就剩下石头了。Prior Chinese research of substances within Tibetan glaciers indicated carbon from forest fires, crop burning and domestic cooking stoves from India have caused the melting. While these could be contributing factors, scientists say the global rise in temperatures is indisputably the primary cause.在对冰川内的物质进行研究之后,之前的一些中国研究人员表示,森林大火、焚烧秸秆以及印度家庭做饭用的厨灶等造成的碳排放都导致了青藏高原冰川的融化。科研人员说,尽管可能还有其它因素,但全球气温升高正在成为导致冰川融化的一个无可辩驳的原因。Tibetans say there has been a drastic change of temperature since 1980s. One U.S.-based Tibetan who recently returned to Lhasa expressed shock at seeing the climatological impact on peoples clothing style. ;When I lived in Lhasa, it was very rare that people could walk outside in T-shirts,; said the man, who asked that his name be withheld. ;Now people are walking in shorts!;西藏地区居民表示自上世纪80年代以来,这一地区的气温发生了剧烈的变化。一位居住在美国、不愿透露姓名的西藏人表示当他最近回到拉萨时,他被人们因气候变化导致的穿衣风格的改变震惊了。他说:“当我在拉萨生活的时候,很少能见到人们穿着T恤衫走出户外的。现在走在拉萨街头的人都是短衣短裤了。”National Geographic reported in 2010 that one glacier was retreating by about 300 meters a year, the length of a U.S. football field.《国家地理》杂志在2010年报告一处冰川正在以每年大约300米的速度消退,这与一个美式橄榄球场的长度大致相当。As early as , Chinas leading scientist on glaciers, Qin Dahe, said glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau were melting faster than in any other part of the world. In the short term, he warned, the melt would trigger more flooding and mudslides; in the long term: ;water supplies in the region will be in peril.;早在年,中国从事冰川研究的带头人秦大河就表示青藏高原的冰川消融速度比世界上其它任何地方都快。他曾警告说冰川消融在短期内就可能导致更多的洪水和泥石流,长远看来这一地区的淡水供应将受到威胁。Some researchers have predicted that most of the Himalayan glaciers will be gone in 20 years.一些研究人员已经预测,喜马拉雅山地区的大部分冰川在20年内将消失殆尀?Water needs淡水需求Those shrinking glaciers feed some of the largest rivers that run through China, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Burma, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam and Cambodia.那些正在消退的冰川是一些世界最大河流的源头,这些河流流经中囀?印度、巴基斯坦、孟加拉囀?缅甸、老挝、泰囀?越南以及柬埔寨;Water is the most important resource that this region has, the common region of Tibet part of China, India, Bhutan and all of that,; said R. Rangachari, honorary scholar at Indias Center for Policy Research and former secretary of the Ministry of Water Resources of India.印度政策研究中心荣誉学者兰加夏里(R. Rangachari)说:“这一区域、也就是由中国的藏区、印度和不丹等等的共同区域所拥有的最重要的资源就是水。”兰加夏里曾担任印度水利部部长,;Water is the key to removing poverty, generation of power, agriculture, et cetera,; he told VOAs Tibetan service.他还对美国之音藏语组说:“水资源是消除贫困、发电和发展农业的关键。”A former researcher of Tibetan Plateau climate change for the Chinese Academy of Science, who spoke on the condition of anonymity, said diminished glacial runoff had aly reduced water levels on the Yangtze and Yellow rivers. ;The headwaters for any major rivers come from (the) Tibetan Plateau and there is (a) lesser water supply to those head rivers,; he said.一位前中国科学院青藏高原气候变化问题研究员表示,在西藏的部分地区,水资源的供应已经在减少,像长江、黄河这样的河流水位也在下降。这位匿名人士还透露:“另一个现象就是对主要河流的供水在减少。源头在青藏高原的主要河流的上游水量在减少,对那些源头河流的供水也在变少。”Chinas Ministry of Water Resources announced in 2013 that as many as 28,000 smaller rivers in China had abruptly disappeared by 2011. While Beijing did not cite specific causes, the anonymous researcher said warming on the Tibetan Plateau was at least partly to blame.中国水利部在2013年公布一项数据,截至2011年,中国有多8000条较小的河流迅速消失。虽然水利部没有提及原因,但那位前中科院研究员表示青藏高原气候变暖是部分原因;Another important reason is the meltdown of the permafrost soil,; which leads to subterranean water drainage, he said. ;Like when you have (a) thick sponge.; The latest research conducted by the Chinese Academy of Science predicted that more than 80 percent of Tibetan Plateau permafrost could be gone by the year 2100, and that almost 40 percent of it would be gone within the ;near future.;他说:“另一个重要原因就是永久冻土融化。”他说,这带来地下水的排水问题,“就像你手里的海绵变厚一样。”中科院的最新研究预测,100年,青藏高原上可能将有超0%的永久冻土消失,有近40%的永久冻土在“不久的将来”就可能消失。Increased risk of conflict冲突风险The apparent changes in the Tibetan Plateau have raised concern about the potential for water-security conflicts in the region, particularly between China and India.青藏高原上明显的气候变化增加了人们对各方,特别是中国和印度,在水资源保障问题上发生冲突的担忧。To mitigate the environmental impact, China has stepped up construction of dams along rivers cascading from the Tibetan Plateau, despite complaints from downstream nations that need the water.在西藏环境发生明显变化的同时,中国不顾下游国家的抱怨,一直在青藏高原的河流上游加紧建设大坝。In fact, the Salween remains the only Tibetan river that has not yet been interrupted by major dams; Tibets Yarlung Tsangpo River, which feeds Indias Brahmaputra River, recently saw construction of a single dam.实际上,在源头在西藏的主要河流中,只有萨尔温河没有重要大坝的阻隔。中国最近在雅鲁藏布江上建成了一座大坝,雅鲁藏布江是印度布拉马普特拉河的源头河流。According to Rangachari, India takes the water issues seriously.兰加夏里表示印度非常重视水资源问题;Nobody wants to hand over their right to do something (especially) what the other is doing,; he said. ;Political boundaries might be created by man, but geography is created by God.;他说:“没人想把做事的权利拱手让人,特别是这件事是别人正在做的。政治界线是人为的,但地理是神定的。来 /201512/414307内蒙古呼和浩特市首大医院治疗阳痿早泄 Time magazine on Wednesday named German Chancellor Angela Merkel as its person of the year for 2015, hailing her leadership during debt and refugee crises that threatened to tear the European Union apart.当地时间12日,德国总理安格拉·默克尔当选(美国)《时代》杂015年度人物,《时代》称赞默克尔在处理债务和难民危机中的表现。而这两项危机险些致欧盟分裂。In power for a decade at the helm of Europes biggest economy, the worlds most powerful woman beat runners-up, the leader of the Islamic State extremist group and Donald Trump as Times dominant personality of the year.执掌欧洲最大经济体十年的默克尔,作为全球最有权势的女性,在《时代》周刊的评选中,力压“伊斯兰IS)”极端组织头目和特朗普当选;For asking more of her country than most politicians would dare, for standing firm against tyranny as well as expedience and for providing steadfast moral leadership in a world where it is in short supply, Angela Merkel is Times Person of the Year,; wrote editor Nancy Gibbs.《时代》主编南帷吉布斯评价称:“因为她比大多数政客更加勇于对她的国家提出要求;因为她对抗暴政与私利的坚定立场;因为她表现出的坚定的道德领导力,这正是这个世界所缺乏的;安格拉·默克尔因此当015年《时代》年度人物。”The person of the year accolade acknowledges what the magazine considers to be the worlds biggest newsmaker, or influential mover.该杂志年度风云人物的评选标准是“最有新闻性”或“最有影响力”。Time magazine lauded Merkel as the indispensable player in managing the prospect of Greek bankruptcy, and the migrant and refugee crisis.《时代》杂志称赞默克尔在希腊危机和难民危机中扮演了“不可或缺”的角色。Since the tradition began in 1927, Merkel is only the fourth woman to win. Last year, healthcare workers treating the Ebola epidemic were honored. In 2013, it was Pope Francis. US President Barack Obama has won twice.927年开始评选以来,默克尔是第四位登顶的女性。去年的获得者为在抗击埃拉疫情的医疗人员,2013年为教皇方济各。美国总统奥巴马曾两次被评选为年度风云人物。Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, leader of the IS extremist group, US Republican presidential candidate Trump, Americas Black Lives Matter activists and Iranian President Hassan Rouhani were named by Time as runners up.“伊斯兰IS)”极端组织头目巴格达迪、美国共和党总统候选人特朗普、美国黑人权利运动活动家们以及伊朗总统鲁哈尼也在今年的《时代》人物决选名单中。来 /201512/415066Domestic and overseas journalists are welcome to cover events commemorating the 70th anniversary of the end of World War II in Beijing next month, the events publicity team said on Monday.纪念二战胜利70周年宣传小组周一说到,本小组欢迎中外记者报道此事。Grand celebrations will be held in Beijing on Sept 2 and 3 to mark the 70th anniversary of the victory of the Chinese peoples war against Japanese aggression and the worlds anti-Fascist war, a statement from the organizers said.该宣传小组说到,9日和3日北京将举行盛大的庆祝仪式来庆祝中国抗击日本侵略和反法西斯战争胜0周年。Overseas journalists who wish to cover the event should register on reg.kzjn70.cn from Aug 3 to 18, the statement said.声明中说道,希望报道此事的外国记者可以在8日到18日之间在reg.kzjn70.cn 上注册。The statement said a press center will be set up in Beijing during the celebrations to provide information services for domestic and overseas reporters.声明中说到,在庆祝期间北京将会设立新闻中心给中外记者提供信息务。China announced plans to commemorate the 70th anniversary of the end of WWII in June. The country will invite foreign militaries to participate in a parade on Sept 3 in Beijing.六月,中国发表了纪念二战胜利70周年的计划声明。中国将会邀请国外军队来参加9日的活动。President Xi Jinping will speak at the event. Representatives of veterans, civilians who supported the army during the war and relatives of the fallen will also take part in the parade.国家主席习近平将会在这次纪念活动中发表讲话。退伍军人代表,战争中持军队的老百姓和亲属也将参加此次游行。来 /201508/390736兴安盟做无痛人流需要多少钱

呼和浩特包皮包茎手术要多少钱US authorities are investigating whether Petrobras or its employees were paid bribes, adding to the mounting domestic corruption probes facing the Brazilian state-controlled oil company, people familiar with the matter say.知情人士表示,美国当局正在调查巴西国家石油公司(Petrobras)或其员工是否收受了贿赂,令这家在巴西国内受到诸多腐败调查的巴西石油公司雪上加霜。The US Department of Justice has opened a criminal investigation into the company, whose American depositary receipts trade in New York, while the Securities and Exchange Commission is pursuing a civil investigation, these people say.知情人士表示,美国司法部(DoJ)已对该公司发起刑事调查,美国交SEC)也在寻求对其开展民事调查。该公司的美国存托凭ADR)在是在纽约上市交易的。Brazil’s biggest company has become the target of investigations by the federal police and prosecutors that is emerging as one of the country’s biggest corruption cases in history. Many of the alleged problems occurred when President Dilma Rousseff was head of the company before taking office in 2011.这家巴西最大公司已成为联邦警察与检查机关的调查对象,这一案件正在成为巴西历史上最大的腐败案之一。被控的许多问题发生在迪尔玛#8226;罗塞Dilma Rousseff)担任该公司掌舵人期间,罗塞夫后来011年上任巴西总统。US authorities are looking into whether Petrobras or its employees, middlemen or contractors, violated the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, an anti-corruption statute that makes it illegal to bribe foreign officials to win or retain business, these people say.上述知情人士表示,美国当局正在调查巴西国家石油公司或其员工、中间商或承包商,是否违反了《反海外腐败法Foreign Corrupt Practices Act)。该法规定,贿赂外国官员以赢得或保住零售业务,是违法行为。Spokesmen for the DoJ and SEC declined to comment. Petrobras did not respond to requests for comment.美国司法部和交会发言人拒绝置评。巴西国家石油公司没有回应记者的置评请求。来 /201411/341749土默特左旗治疗妇科疾病多少钱 呼和浩特看早泄好点的男科医院

呼和浩特市妇幼保健院做流产多少钱 For a moment during the summer of 2012 it seemed that Britain had at last left behind its lingering post-imperial neuroses. Comfortable in their multi-shaded skin, a people who had once ruled nearly a third of the world had found a new role as welcoming host. The London Olympics were a celebration of a new Britishness: diverse, outward looking, mindful of tradition but eager to embrace the future. True, post-crash austerity had dented morale, but the medals collected by Jessica Ennis, Mo Farah and their fellow athletes in “Team GBilluminated the road ahead.2012年夏天,英国一度似乎终于将其难以摆脱的后帝国时代的神经质抛诸脑后。一个曾统治世界近三分之一疆土的民族定位了自己作为热情东道主的新角色,并对自己的多元化感到十分惬意。伦敦奥运会是一场新“英国性Britishness)的庆典:多元化、外向型、铭记传统却也渴望拥抱未来。的确,金融危机过后的紧缩挫伤了士气,但是“大不列颠之队”中的杰西卡#8226;恩尼Jessica Ennis)、莫#8226;法拉(Mo Farah)等许多本土运动员所赢得的奖牌,照亮了前方的路。The moment passed. The Britain of 2015 feels a fractious and fractured place. Pride in diversity has made way for the rise of the anti-immigrant populism of the UK Independence party. The economy is growing again a lot faster than in the rest of Europe but so too, it seems, is a yawning gulf between the prosperous and the disadvantaged. Below the surface, the pillars of the old English Establishment have cracked.那一时刻已然过去015年的英国体会到一种困难重重而又离破碎的境地。对多元化的自豪之情已经为英国独立党(UK Independence party)反移民的民粹主义让路。经济再次实现增长——增速甚至比欧洲其他地方快得多——但繁荣地区和弱势地区之间巨大的鸿沟似乎也在进一步加深。表象背后,英国旧体制的柱已经出现裂缝。In spite of last year’s vote to remain within the four-nation union, Scotland could yet decide to strike out on its own. A political and cultural chasm has opened up between London, still the global hub of 2012, and a less prosperous English hinterland. The two parties that have dominated postwar politics David Cameron’s Conservatives and Ed Miliband’s Labour are retreating into regional redoubts. The ed Kingdom has rarely been so disunited.尽管去年经过投票继续留在联合王国之中,但苏格兰仍有可能决定自谋出路。在2012年仍是全球中心的伦敦和较不繁荣的英国腹地之间,政治和文化鸿沟已经拉开。主导战后政治的两个党派——戴#8226;卡梅David Cameron)领导的保守党以及埃德#8226;米利班德(Ed Miliband)领导的工党——正退守至区域阵地。联合王国很少出现过如此分崩离析的情景。National self-confidence民族自信心Britain has lost its international moorings. The Iraq and Afghanistan wars took a heavy toll on national self-confidence. A swing towards introversion has been reinforced by the economic imperative to cut deficits and debt. The armed forces have returned from defeats in Basra and Helmand to the prospect of sweeping reductions in military budgets. Facing rising euroscepticism at home Mr Cameron flirts with the idea of withdrawal from the EU, much to the puzzlement of friends and allies abroad. Mr Miliband is but silent on global affairs. The British, says a report from the think-tank Chatham House, still want to hold their heads up in the world but they doubt they can make a decisive difference.英国失去了国际撑点。伊拉克和阿富汗战争沉重地打击了英国的民族自信心。削减赤字和降低债务的必要经济举措又加强了英国向内向型的转变。从伊拉克巴士拉(Basra)和阿富汗赫尔曼德(Helmand)的战场失利中返回的军队,又遭遇军费预算被全面削减的前景。面对国内升温的欧元怀疑主义,卡梅伦玩弄着退出欧EU)的概念,让海外盟友均困惑不已。米利班德对国际事务一味保持沉默。英国著名智库查塔姆研究所(Chatham House,又名英国皇家国际事务研究所——编者注)的一份报告称,英国人仍然希望能在世界上昂首挺胸,但他们对自己是否能带来决定性的影响没有把握。Sir John Sawers, the diplomat-turned spymaster who until recently led the Secret Intelligence Service, speaks of a nation stepping back from the world in much the way the US withdrew into itself after the Vietnam war. As Vladimir Putin’s Russia marches into Ukraine, a senior figure in the US Administration wonders aloud if the fabled “special relationshipbetween Washington and London is being hollowed out. There is real doubt, he says, “about the commitment and credibility of the UK as a partner in preserving international peace外交官出身的间谍机构首脑、最近才卸任英国秘密情报局(SIS)局长的约翰#8226;索厄斯爵Sir John Sawers)称,英国从世界舞台撤回,就像美国在越南战争中脱身而关注本国事务一样。在弗拉基米#8226;普京(Vladimir Putin)领导的俄罗斯进军乌克兰时,美国当局一位高级人物公开质疑华盛顿和伦敦之间传说中的“特殊关系”是否只剩下空壳。他称,“英国在维护国际和平中作为伙伴国的承诺和信誉”确实值得怀疑。In other circumstances, the general election set for May 7 might have galvanised the nation in a vigorous debate not just about the domestic economy and the shape of government but also about how best to adjust to a tougher, more precarious world.在其他环境下,定日举行的英国大选可能已经在全国掀起了一场轰轰烈烈的讨论,不仅是关于国内经济和政府构成,还关于如何最好地适应一个更严峻、更不稳定的世界。Elections should promise competing visions, alternative futures. Instead the campaigns thus far have exposed a profound disconnect between an outdated politics and the concerns and aspirations of the voters. Society and politics have fallen out of step. Vernon Bogdanor, professor of government at London’s Kings College who once tutored the young Mr Cameron at Oxford, talks of “a growing divergence between the constitutional and political forms of an earlier age and the social and economic realities of today选举应该是各路人马提出竞争性的发展愿景和不同的未来选择。然而,目前为止竞选活动已经暴露出过时的政治主张与选民的关切和期待之间的严重脱节。社会和政治的步调不一致。卡梅伦年轻时在牛津大学(Oxford)的导师——伦敦大学国王学Kings College London)政府学教授韦#8226;波格丹诺(Vernon Bogdanor),就指出了“早期宪法和政治形态与当今社会和经济现实之间日益扩大的差异”。Labour has lost the recruits once provided by the smokestack industries and a Conservative membership card no longer bestows social cachet on the upwardly mobile middle classes.工党已经失去了曾由传统工业输送的成员,保守党成员的身份牌也不再能给有望向社会上层流动的中产阶层赋予社会声望。Stranded by modernity无法适应现代世界This year marks the 800th anniversary of Magna Carta, the bargain struck between England’s King John and the medieval barons that is often seen as the foundation stone of British democracy. In moments of hubris, the English will tell you that the rule of law was the charter’s gift not just to Shakespeare’s Sceptered Isle but to the democratic world. The commemorative events were supposed to mark the constancy and stability of the habits and institutions of the nation’s unwritten constitution.今年是《大宪章Magna Carta)问世800周年,这份英王约翰与中世纪贵族之间的妥协文件常被视为英国民主的基石。在自大的时候,英国人会告诉你,法治不仅是《大宪章》为莎士比亚笔下的“权杖之岛Sceptered Isle)带来的灵感,也是《大宪章》对民主世界的馈赠。纪念活动本应突出这个国家不成文宪法中的惯例与制度的恒定性和稳定性。Yet the contemporary picture is one of a political system and set of constitutional rules that have been left stranded by modernity. Britain has outgrown its politics. For most of the postwar era the two-party (sometimes a two-and-a-half party) system delivered stable, single-party government. When Mr Cameron was obliged to go into formal coalition with Nick Clegg’s Liberal Democrats after the 2010 election, it was seen as a temporary excursion into European-style, multi-party politics. The familiar, bipolar system would soon enough reassert itself. The prospect now, however, is for another inconclusive election outcome and, further ahead, for the permanent politics of minority administrations or coalitions.然而,当代的景象却是:英国的政治体制和宪法规则无法适应现代世界。英国的政治已经落后于这个国家。在二战后的多数时间内,两党制(有时是两党半制)缔造了稳定的一党揽政政府010年大选后,当卡梅伦不得不与尼#8226;克雷Nick Clegg)领导的自由民主党(Liberal Democrats)组建联合政府时,这被视为对欧洲式多党政治的临时借鉴,而英国人所熟悉的两极政治体制会很快回归。然而,如今看来,未来会再次出现非决定性的选举结果,说得再远一些,少数党政府或联合政府将成为长久的政治景象。The temptation is to treat this fragmentation the Scottish Nationalist party and the Greens have joined Ukip in challenging the traditional order as a fleeting phenomenon. Old political hands at Westminster talk about a natural reaction to hard economic times and to a peculiarly lacklustre generation of political leaders.人们很容易把这种离破碎——苏格兰国民Scottish Nationalist Party)和绿Greens)已经同英国独立党一道挑战传统秩序——当作一种短暂现象。威斯敏斯特的政坛老手认为,面对经济困难时期以及格外平庸无能的一代政治领导人,这种离破碎是自然反应。They have half a point. Living standards have fallen. Mr Cameron is a prime minister aiming for a place in history’s footnotes. Mr Miliband yearns for a mythical age when politicians of the left had no need to compromise with grubby capitalism. Their platforms lack ambition and optimism. For its part, Mr Clegg’s party is consumed by a fight for survival. The junior partners in coalitions rarely fare well.他们说对了一半。生活水平确实下降了。卡梅伦是一位想要名垂青史的首相。米利班德渴望的是一个左翼政客不必再向肮脏的资本主义妥协的神话时代。他们的政治纲领均缺少雄心壮志和乐观精神。而克雷格所领导的自由民主党为生存斗争而精疲力尀?联合政府中较弱势的一方很少有过得好的。Alongside the cyclical trends, however, there are deeper currents at work. The two-party system is falling victim to social and economic upheaval. As Mr Bogdanor writes in an essay for the UK Constitution Society, Britain is in transition from “the société bloquée of the 1950s, dominated by large socio-economic blocs based on occupation and class, to a more socially and geographically fragmented society然而,除了周期性趋势的影响外,还有更深层次的趋势在起作用。两党制正沦为社会和经济动荡的牺牲品。正如波格丹诺在为英国宪法学UK Constitution Society)所写的一篇论文中所称,英国正在从0世纪50年代基于职业和阶级的大型社会经济集团所主导的封闭社会,向在社会和地理层面更为碎片化的社会”转变。In 1951 the House of Commons counted six MPs who stood outside the two main parties. The number now is 85. Class-based ties have weakened and new lines have been drawn between Scotland and England, between young and old, and between north and south.1951年,英国下议院只名议员不属于两大政党。而现在不属于两大党的下议院议员达到了85名。基于阶层的联系已经弱化,在苏格兰和英格兰、年轻人和老年人、北部和南部之间,新的界线业已形成。There was a time when a large slice of the population was “bornTory or Labour. The Hansard Society, which carries out a regular audit of political engagement, says only 30 per cent of voters will now admit a firm party allegiance. Some 67 per cent cent say that the politicians “don’t understand the daily lives of people like us有一段时间,英国的很大一部分人口“生来”就属于保守党或者工党。定期评审政治参与情况的英国议会议事录学Hansard Society)表示,目前只0%的选民承认自己坚定地持某个政党7%的选民表示政界人士“不了解我们这种人的日常生活”。The Conservatives are now a party of the prosperous south. Tory MPs are nowhere to be found in Manchester, Leeds, Birmingham or Newcastle. Outside London the capital defies most of the trends elsewhere Labour struggles to win more than a handful of seats in England’s southern regions. The Conservatives have struggled in Scotland for over a generation. Now, having lost September’s referendum on independence, the nationalists threaten to trounce Labour in the contest for seats at Westminster.保守党现在成为了繁荣的南部地区的政党。在曼彻斯特、利兹、伯明翰或者纽卡斯尔,保守党议员无处可寻。伦敦是一个其他地方的大多数趋势无法适用的地方,在伦敦以外的英格兰南部地区,工党努力争取获得不至于少得可怜的席位。超5年以来,保守党一直在努力争取苏格兰地区的席位。眼下,在去月的独立公投中落败的民族主义者正威胁要在英国议会的席位争夺战中彻底打败工党。Not so long ago the winning party at a general election would command the support of more than 40 per cent of the electorate. Messrs Cameron and Miliband, each now fighting to lose less badly than the other, struggle to reach much above 30 per cent.不久以前,大选的获胜党还能得到超0%选民的持。而卡梅伦和米利班德如今正在努力不比对方输得更惨,争取让持率超过30%。Loss of authority权威的丧失The challenge is not just to the familiar hierarchy at Westminster. Henry Fairlie, a journalist who plied his trade during the 1950s, coined the phrase “The Establishmentto describe the nexus of traditions, institutions and powerful individuals at the apex of British society. Power still belonged to the landed, the Treasury and the Foreign Office, the bankers and brokers of City of London, the B and the press barons, the bishops and judges. Decisions were taken in the oak-panelled drawing rooms of the gentlemen’s clubs in St James’s.面临挑战的不仅是人们熟悉的英国议会。在上世0年代担任记者的亨利#8226;费尔Henry Fairlie)发明了“建制The Establishment)这个词,来描述由传统、制度和处于英国社会顶点、权势显赫的人物们组成的关系网。过去,权力属于有大量土地的人、英国财政部和外交部、伦敦金融城(City of London)的家和经纪人、英国广播公B)和媒体巨头、以及主教和法官。决策发生在圣詹姆斯St James’s)绅士俱乐部里装饰着橡木饰板的客厅。There are still corners where the ancien regime thrives. For all the well-publicised troubles of some of her immediate family, the steadying figure of Queen Elizabeth has kept the affection of her people and sustained the monarchy as the guardian of national unity. To adapt the 19th century essayist Walter Bagehot, she has not allowed the daylight to tarnish the magic.眼下,旧体制在某些地方依然兴盛。尽管伊丽莎白二Queen Elizabeth)的一些直系亲属的麻烦遭到广泛报道,女王本人稳定人心的形象仍让她得到了子民的爱戴,使君主制继续成为国家统一的守护者。套9世纪家白哲特(Walter Bagehot)的话,她没有让女王的魔力在日光下失色。There are other pockets of privilege: the aides charged with writing the Tory election manifesto are almost all, like Mr Cameron, alumni of Eton, one of Britain’s expensive public schools. Yet, as Britain’s power has waned so too has the authority of the Establishment networks. Mr Cameron’s inner circle of well-heeled chums grates with much of the electorate. One of his own MPs casts him a “Tory posh boyout of touch with the kitchen table preoccupations of the nation. The City has fallen into disgrace as a consequence of the financial crash and a succession of money-laundering and mis-selling scandals. Only this month HS has been found colluding in tax evasion. The British Social Attitudes Survey records that in 1983 some 90 per cent of voters thought banks were well-run institutions. By 2012 the level of trust had fallen to 19 per cent.还有其他一些特权的存在:负责撰写保守党竞选宣言的助手几乎都和卡梅伦一样,是英国贵族公学伊Eton)的毕业生。然而,随着英国的力量渐渐衰退,“建制”网络的权威也日趋式微。卡梅伦富有的心腹密友内围集团与大多数选民格格不入。他自己政党的一位议员把他叫做“托利党公子哥”,称他对国民们在餐桌上关心的事情毫不知情。金融危机和一系列洗钱和不当销售丑闻让伦敦金融城蒙羞。就在本月,汇丰(HS)被曝光帮助客户逃税。英国社会态度调查(British Social Attitudes Survey)的记录表明,983年,约有90%的选民相信是管理良好的机构。到2012年,对的信任比例已经下跌9%。As for parliament, the British have always shown a healthy scepticism towards politicians but this has curdled into deep cynicism in the wake of a series of expenses scandals. This week two former foreign secretaries, Jack Straw and Sir Malcolm Rifkind, were caught up in the furore about MPsbusiness interests. Sir Malcolm said he would stand down at the election.至于议会,英国人一向对政治人士表现出一种良性的怀疑,但在一系列金钱丑闻后,这种怀疑已经变成了深深的不信任。本周,两名前外交大臣——杰#8226;斯特Jack Straw)和马尔科#8226;里夫金德爵士(Sir Malcolm Rifkind)因利用议员身份谋取商业利益而引起大众的愤怒。里夫金德表示他将在选举前辞职。In the Church of England, bishops are sermonising to dwindling flocks. The press the 18th century constitutionalist Edmund Burke called it the fourth estate has been badly tarnished by the phone-tapping revelations. After myriad economic crises, the Treasury more closely resembles a spluttering East German Trabant than the Rolls-Royce of folklore. And Foreign Office diplomats, once at the very top of the Whitehall establishment and powerful emissaries of Britain’s international influence, have been told by their political masters to reinvent themselves as travelling salespeople for Britain plc.至于英国国教,聆听主教们布道的人群正在逐渐减少。被18世纪的宪政主义者埃德蒙#8226;伯克(Edmund Burke)称为“第四等级fourth estate)的新闻界也因为电话窃听丑闻蒙上了污名。数次经济危机以后,英国财政部更像是一辆嘎嘎作响的东德特拉贝特Trabant),而不是一辆闪耀着传统荣光的劳斯莱Rolls-Royce)。英国外交部的外交官们曾一度处于伦敦政府系统的顶点,是展现英国国际影响力的强大使者。而现在他们的政治主人告诉他们,要把自己改造成英国企业的流动推销员。Prisoner of the past历史的囚徒Many will bid a fond goodbye to the egregious bastions of self-perpetuating privilege. The age of unthinking deference has passed. Yet the more general corrosion of trust in the nation’s politicians and institutions has had unhappier consequences. As elsewhere in Europe, it leaves a vacuum of legitimacy, one being filled by the “antis the anti-elite, the anti-European, the anti-immigrant and the anti-capitalist. The populists have caught the temper of the times in offering disenchanted voters enemies rather than answers. Messrs Cameron and Miliband are chasing them to right and left.许多人将依依不舍地告别永续特权最坚固的那些堡垒。不经思考就从的年代已经过去。然而,人们在更大范围上渐渐丧失对政治人士和体制的信任,引起了更不幸的结果。就像欧洲其他地方一样,这催生了一种合法性真空,填补这种真空的正是那些“反对”阵营:反精英、反欧洲、反移民和反资本主义。民粹主义者抓住了这个时代的普遍情绪,向失望的选民提供了敌人,而非。卡梅伦和米利班德则驱使选民走向左或者右。The rise of nationalism in Scotland and Ukip’s success in promoting English identity politics speak to a union of nations that is losing the glue of Britishness. Some, such as the historian Linda Colley, suggest that this was always going to be so. Britain, after all, is an invented state, forged since the 18th century through imperial adventures, shared protestantism and common enemies. Mr Bogdanor’s answer is a new constitutional settlement a redistribution of power between, and within, the four nations of the union to match the social, economic and cultural realities of the times.苏格兰民族主义的兴起和英国独立党在推动英国身份认同政治方面的成功,呼应了这个正在失去“英国性”维系的民族国家联盟。一些人,比如历史学家琳#8226;科利(Linda Colley),表示事情总是会变成这样。毕竟,英国是一个人为构造的国家,是8世纪以后,通过帝国探险、共同信奉的新教主义和共同的敌人缔结而成的国家。波格丹诺提出的是达成一种新的宪制安排——重新在这个个民族国家组成的联盟之中,以及在各民族国家之间分配权力,以适应当代的社会、经济和文化现实。He is right. Britain needs a new way of governing itself and a new story a binding narrative that affords due respect to the past but is no longer imprisoned by it. London 2012 pointed the way.他是正确的。英国需要一种新的治理方式,一种新的表述——对过去给予恰当的尊崇、但不受制于过去的约束性表述012年伦敦奥运会为我们指明了方向。来 /201503/362000内蒙古附属医院治疗包皮包茎多少钱呼和浩特市看男科怎么样

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