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来源:飞排名黑龙江新闻    发布时间:2018年02月20日 15:54:01    编辑:admin         

As summer progresses,随着夏日持续even more of the Southern Ocean is gradually opening up.南大洋的冰面逐渐融化The summer melt, as it moves south,夏季慢慢南移arrives first at the Antarctic Peninsula,率先来到南极半岛the most northern tip of the continent.南极大陆的最北段As the ice retreats, a dramatic 500-mile-long coastline随着冰面缩减 七个月以来is revealed for the first time in seven months.500英里长的广袤海岸线首次重见天日This new seascape is home这片全新的海景to one of the most numerous mammals on the planet.为地球上数量最多的哺乳动物提供了家园Crabeater seals.食蟹海豹Over 15 million live here, amongst the drifting ice floes.它们在漂浮的冰川上生活了一千五百万年They owe their existence here to living organisms so small,它们的生存依赖与一种微小的生物体you might hardly notice them.这种生物体几乎小到难以令人察觉The underside of the sea ice is stained by algae.浮冰的下表面充满了藻类These microscopic plants这些微小的植物support the most important Antarctic creatures of all.养活了南极洲最重要的生物Krill.磷虾They have been grazing on the algal layer throughout the winter.整个冬天 它们以海藻果腹As the ice melts, more of the algae are released into the water.随着冰的消融 更多的海藻在海里生长Both algae and krill flourish in the summer sun.海藻和磷虾在夏日的艳阳下大量繁殖The krill collect the algae in the sieve-like basket磷虾前腿之间连接的体毛像筛状的篮子formed by the interlocking hairs between their front legs.磷虾将海藻收集在其中 /201211/208994。

漫画家Jim Toomey 创造的漫画《谢尔曼的泻湖》,从一个独特的角度看水下生活的主角;;会说话的鲨鱼谢尔曼。Toomey在讲台上描写一些自己最喜欢的海洋生物,同时分享了他对海洋的热爱和其中的一些故事。 Article/201112/166082。

TEXT:Washington#39;s ragtag troops are about to face he best-equipped and most powerful fighting force in the world.June 29th. 45 British warships mass off Staten Island. Bearing down on New York City,the ultimate war machine of its day, the British ship -of -the-line. Each ship is made from over 2,000 century-old trees. Each carries hundreds more soldiers to the fight against the colonies.And each is armed with up to 64 heavy cannons capable of hurling a 24 -pound cannonball at the speed of sound, delivering it to targets over a mile away. One ship -of -the-line costs the equivalent of a modern aircraft carrier. Another 350 British ships are racing across the Atlantic to join them. The British want to terrify the Rebels into submission. Instead, they inspire them to resist. On July 2nd,there#39;s a crisis meeting in Philadelphia. 50 delegates elected to the Continental Congress from the 13 colonies hold an emergency session. They include radicals like Ben Franklin,Thomas Jefferson and John Adams. What they#39;re debating is nothing less than high treason -- total independence from Britain. The penalty is death. We are in the midst of a revolution, the most complete in the history of the world. It#39;s the birth of American democracy. We have to expect a great expanse of blood to obtain it. Some don#39;t believe the Rebels stand a chance. We are about to brave the storm in a skiff made of paper. But the doubters are outnumbered nearly five to one.译文:华盛顿所率领的乌合之众要抗击的是当时全世界装备最精良,战斗力最强的军队。6月29日,45艘英国战舰向斯塔滕岛进发,浩浩荡荡向纽约逼近。英国海军舰队,那个时代的终极武器。每艘战舰都由2000余棵百年老树造就,搭载着数百名士兵前去镇压殖民地反抗。每艘战舰还配有64门重型火炮,能够以声速射出24磅的炮弹且射程可达1英里。建造一队战舰所花费的成本不亚于当今的航空母舰。另有350艘战船正飞速穿越大西洋前来增援,英国本想以此吓退起义军,却没想到这反而激起了他们的斗志。7月2日在费城召开了一个紧急会议,50名代表13州参加大陆会议的代表进行了紧急磋商,会议成员中的激进分子如本·富兰克林,托马斯·杰斐逊和约翰·亚当斯,他们主张发动一场不亚于叛国的革命脱离英王统治取得独立。不成功便成仁,我们正身处一场有史以来最为彻底的革命之中,这场革命促使了美国民主的诞生,这场革命需要我们为之抛头颅洒热血。然而保守派却认为革命毫无希望,我们这无异于以卵击石,持怀疑态度者最终以一比五被否决。《美国简史》系本纪录片历史背景背景知识:独立战争的进程(下)(接上期内容)  10月的萨拉托加战役成为局势的转折点,伯高因将军驻扎在加拿大的英军南下,企图与豪将军的军队汇合,对大陆军构成合围,但豪将军率领的英军只顾攻占费城,未给他们以有效的配合,使得哈得逊河流域的美军后方没受到豪的英军的威胁,因而能抵御伯高因的军队自北南下。而伯高因的英军远离后勤供应基地,沿途又遭到民兵狙击,伤亡惨重,撤退萨拉托加附近时,孤立无援,于10月17日被迫向大陆军投降。  萨拉托加大捷的政治意义远大于其军事意义,英国议会和内阁开始认识到英国存在战败的可能,因而出现了议和的呼声。在七年战争中失败的法国,在战争之初就秘密以金钱和武器援助美国,但由于还不相信美国的力量,因而在公开的国家场合仍保持严守中立的姿态。萨拉托加大捷之后,1778年2月法国和美国正式缔结同盟条约。6月,英、法海军交火,法国终于加入反英战争。不久荷兰与西班牙也相继承认美国,加入反英的联盟,作为大陆会议特使前往法国争取援助的富兰克林以灵活的外交手腕,争取国际舆论的同情,孤立英国,为改善美国的国际环境作出了重大贡献。  1781午8月底,华盛顿亲率5700名大陆军、3100名民兵及法国拉法伊特将军率领下的7000法军,将固守在港口城市约克敦的南方部队司令康沃利斯率领的英军团团围住。康沃利斯原来指望英军的海上援力量,但在英国舰队赶来时,才发现法国海军已占有压倒性优势。当英军总司令克林顿于10月24日带领7000名英军赶来增援时,已然为时已晚。康沃利斯和将近8000名英军已在10月19日向大陆军缴械投降,美国独立战争取得了决定性胜利。  美国取得约克镇大捷的消息传到欧洲后,英国下议院决定结束战争。和平谈判于1782年4月间开始,直至11月底才结束。英、美初步缔结了和约,并于1783年在巴黎正式签字,成为定案,《巴黎和约》承认北美13个殖民地独立,并享有自由与主权,且划定了美国北部的边界线,大致与现在的边界线相同。  美国独立战争历时八年,在这场伟大的革命中,有2.5万美国人前仆后继在不同的时间拿起武器为自由而战,在战争即将结束时,华盛顿说了句很有远见的预言:;我们的命运将涉及未来世世代代的亿万男女的命运。;[下期讲述美国史:华盛顿,异人也]。

Article/200910/86431。

But for all the mini balls technological edge, the army still uses traditional military tactics.即使有了迷你弹这样的科技优势军队仍然采用传统的兵法战术。What made it specifically tragic was modern technology meeting much more ancient tactics, so the death rates were truly appalling.让战争尤为惨烈的是现代科技与更多的传统战术相结合,因此伤亡数字十分惊人。The troops still face one another openly with lines across the battlefield. But the mini ball is accurate over a range of 600 yards.双方军队仍是直接正面交锋并维持着各自的战线,但迷你弹精确射程可达600码[约550米],Easily spanning this distance. And it can be reloaded eight times faster than a traditional weapon. The effects are catastrophic.足以轻易贯穿两军间隔,而且其重新上膛时间更短,比传统武器要快八倍,后果是灾难性的。The kill rate increases dramatically compared to previously wars. Across the battlefield the results are carnage. Blood and death on a previously unseen scales.战死率相比之前的战争大幅上升,整个战场就像是经历了一场大屠杀,出乎意料,伤亡数字空前巨大。They killed each other in droves in lines and in piles.他们相互残杀,尸体成群,成排,成堆。Soldier Alexander Hunter writes. One lay on his face with his body almost in two parts.士兵亚历山大·亨特写道,一个人趴在地上 身体几乎分成了两半。Another was shot just as he was taking aim, one eye was still open while the other was closed, one arm extended in the position of holding his rifle which laid beside on the ground.另一个人中弹时还正在瞄准,一只眼还睁着而另一只眼已经闭上了,胳膊伸出去的姿势还在握着步,而步则躺在他身边的地上,The troops on both sides must live in the middle of this untold deafen suffering.双方的部队都必须在这弥漫着死亡气氛的环境中挣扎求生。Horatio Chapman, records his experience in his diary. The dead in some places were piled upon each other and the groans and moans of the wounded were truly saddening to hear.霍雷肖·查普曼在日记里记录了他的经历,有些地方死尸层层堆叠在一起,伤员的呻吟和哀叹,实在令人耳不忍闻。Some were just alive and gasping, but unconscious others were mortally wounded and were conscious of the fact that they could not live long.一部分人苟延残喘但已失去知觉,而另一部分人重伤垂死,同时清醒地意识到自己已是命不久矣。 /201210/206099。

TEXT:England has lost most of its forests. It wants American wood. In Boston, there#39;s one redcoat for every four citizens. It#39;s a city under occupation. Paul Revere is a silversmith and one of Boston#39;s prominent businessmen,an unlikely subversive. They formed and marched with insolent parade, drums,beating, fifes playing, and colors flying, each soldier having received 16 rounds of powder and ball.He is an upper -middle-class figure, someone who has risen through his own efforts, his own talent.He represents what we have created on our own with very little help from our cousins across the Atlantic. But when revolution comes to North America...Revere will beat the center of it.Boston and the 13 colonies are an economic powerhouse, critical to Britain. Nearly 40% of everything exported from Britain, makes its way toAmerica.The fishing fleet ships thousands of tons of salted cod to the Caribbean. Returns with sugar and molasses,raw material for rum. Taxed by the British after every exchange. In Africa, rum is the currency used to purchase the most profitable cargo of all...African slaves. Between 1700 and 1800, more than 1/4 of a million Africans are brought to the American colonies. More slaves than all those who came of their own free will. Most wind up on large plantations in the South. But they#39;re also critical to the economy of the North. 10% of Boston#39;s population is black. Boston is a melting pot, and tension is building. Nobody likes invaders in their homes. To have people here, foreigners on your soil, is something,is a great incentive for people to fight. March 5, 1770. After three days of unrest, an angry mob roams the streets. Hundreds of men who lost their jobs and blame the British gather on King Street and face off against eight redcoats with orders not to fire. What#39;s about to happen will change America forever. A 17-year -old wig maker#39;s apprentice, Edward Garrick, lights the fuse.This is how wars start.译文:英国的大部分森林已不复存在,所以把目光投向了美国的森林。在波士顿,每四个市民就有一名英国士兵,整个城市完全被控制了。保罗·里维尔是一名银匠,也是波士顿知名大商人之一,一点都不像危险分子。傲慢的英国兵浩浩荡荡地进城,军乐阵阵,旗帜飞扬,每名士兵都配发了16发弹药。理查德·诺顿·史密斯[乔治梅森大学 历史学家]:“他是典型的中上层阶级,全靠自身努力奋斗得到现有的一切,他代表了这样一群人,几乎不靠英国亲友帮忙,白手起家。”但是当北美革命一触即发时,里维尔将身处革命的最前沿,包括波士顿在内的13个殖民地可以说是英国经济发展的发电站,对英国来说至关重要。英国出口的物品,将近40%都来到了美国。船队将成千上万吨的腌鳕鱼运往加勒比海,又将糖和糖蜜运往英国,那些都是制作朗姆酒的原料,每一项进出口贸易都要向英国交税。在非洲,朗姆酒被当作货币,可以用来购买最赚钱的货——非洲黑奴。在1700年到1800年间,超过25万的非洲人被运往美国殖民地,大都是被强迫做了奴隶而非自愿前去,大部分人被送往南方大种植园。不过,黑人对美国北方经济发展也至关重要,波士顿10%的人口是黑人。波士顿就像一个大熔炉,气氛越发紧张。安妮特·戈登·里德[罗格斯大学历史学教授]:“没有人喜欢自己家里有侵略者,让外国人来到这片土地,某种程度上反而激励了人们去战斗。1770年3月5日,持续三天的动乱后,一群暴民游荡在大街小巷中。成百上千的人没了工作,他们聚集到国王街咒骂英国当局,和八个被下令不准开的英国士兵对峙。接下来发生的事情彻底改写了美国历史,17岁的制假发学徒爱德华·加里克点燃了导火线,战斗是这样开始的。《美国简史》系本纪录片历史背景背景知识:要自由,不要印花税(下)(接上期内容)为反对《印花税法》的施行,许多殖民地居民组织起秘密组织,开展反印花税斗争,提出了;要自由、财产,不要印花税;的口号。纽约、费城、波士顿的商人们决定联合起来,提出如果不废除《印花税法》,就拒绝销售英国的货物。殖民地当地的妇女们也组织起名叫;自由之女;的团体,她们自己纺纱织布,不穿从英国进口的纺织品,提出了;宁穿土布衣,决不失自由;的鲜明口号。 一些思想比较激进的人士为阻止《印花税法》生效,举行游行示威,高呼;要自由,不要印花税;,捣毁税局,放火焚毁成堆的税票,迫使税吏辞职,有些地方甚至发生了暴乱。在波士顿,一群反《印花税法》的人冲进当地一位名叫安德鲁·奥利弗的印花税票代销人家里,威胁着要杀了他,次日,这位代销人别无选择地被迫辞职了,其他印花税票代销人也都纷纷挂职而去。在纽约,副总督科尔登在一群反《印花税法》人的冲击下逃到英国军舰上寻求保护,这群人随即袭击了伯特利要塞,冲击了总督的马车房,焚毁了印花税票,随后来到一位曾威胁要把《印花税法》从人们的喉咙里塞下去的守备军官家里,砸烂了他的家具与摆设,铲平了他的花园。图: 反印花税运动  1765年11月1日原本应该是《印花税法》正式生效的日子,可是当这一天到来的时候,殖民地已找不到一张印花税票,更找不出一个人来代销印花税票了,《印花税法》在殖民地居民的强烈反对下彻底流产,报纸不贴印花税票照样出版,商人在没有交税的情况下继续贸易。   10月7日到25日,9个殖民地派出29位代表在纽约召开反印花税会议,目的在于协调统一各殖民地的政治立场,它成为后来大陆会议的预演。10月19日,会议通过了《权利和公平宣言》,在表示对英国议会;一切应有的从;之后,提出北美的居民与英国本土的人们一样有着天赋的权利与自由,未经本人或代表的同意不得向他们加征任何税收,征税唯一的合法机构只能是殖民地议会而非英国议会。宣言同时宣布,由海事法庭对违反税收法令的人进行审判更是没有道理的。   殖民地抵制英货的运动,使英国商人遭受重大损失,与北美地区的贸易锐减,利润大幅度下降,他们也向英国政府施加压力,要求取消《印花税法》。在强大的反对声势压力下,1766年3月,英国议会在进行了一场激烈的辩论后,最后同意撤销《印花税法》。   废除《印花税法》的消息传到殖民地后,当地居民欣喜若狂,欢声雷动,燃放焰火,鸣钟庆祝,;灯火辉煌,篝火营营,坊林立,人群熙攘,火花满天,一派欢歌笑语、喜气连天的情景;。在纽约城,当地居民烤了两头全牛,并向兴高采烈的群众免费供应啤酒和掺水的烈酒以示庆贺。   不过《印花税法》的失败并没有迫使英国政府放弃进一步控制北美殖民地政治经济、加征更多税收的努力,另外一番新的斗争较量很快就上演了。(下期讲述《波士顿倾茶事件》)。

当网络公司努力为迎合个人喜好而调整其务(包括新闻和搜索结果)时,会出现一种意外的危险结果:我们会深陷在;过滤泡沫;中,不能得到能挑战或拓展我们世界观的信息。伊莱;帕里泽认为,这种现象对我们、对民主最终都是有害的。 Article/201204/177899。